Strategies for combating increasing childhood obesity is called for. School settings have been pointed out as potentially effective settings for prevention. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of four additional Physical Education (PE) lessons/week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8-13.
Children attending 2nd to 4th grade (n?=?632) in 10 public schools, 6 intervention and 4 control schools, participated in this longitudinal study during 2 school years.
Primary: Body Mass Index (BMI) and Total Body Fat percentage (TBF%) derived from Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary: the moderating effect of overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and adiposity based on TBF% cut offs for gender.
Intervention effect on BMI and TBF% (BMI: ß -0.14, 95% CI: -0.33; 0.04, TBF%: ß -0.08, 95% CI:-0.65;0.49) was shown insignificant. However, we found significant beneficial intervention effect on prevalence of OW/OB based on BMI (OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11;0.72). The intervention effect on adiposity based on TBF% cut offs was borderline significant (OR 0.64, 95% CI:0. 39; 1.05).
Four additional PE lessons/week at school can significantly improve the prevalence of OW/OB in primary schoolchildren. Mean BMI and TBF% improved in intervention schools, but the difference with controls was not significant. The intervention had a larger effect in children who were OW/OB or adipose at baseline.
The impact on children's bone health of a school-based physical education program and participation in leisure time sports: the Childhood Health, Activity and Motor Performance School (the CHAMPS) study, Denmark.
To evaluate the effect of a school based physical education (PE) program and the amount of leisure time sport (LTS) on children's bone health and to examine if LTS influences the impact of school type on children's bone health.
Children attending "sports" schools (6 × 45 min PE lessons per week) were compared to children at "traditional" schools (2 × 45 min of PE lessons per week) in Svendborg, Denmark. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline (2008) and at a two-year follow-up (2010). Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and bone area (BA) were measured. Multilevel regression analyses examined the impact of school type and LTS participation on bone.
742/800 (93%) invited children accepted to participate. 682/742 (92%) participated at two-year follow-up. Mean (SD) age was 9.5 years (0.9) at baseline. A positive association between LTS and BMC, BMD (p
Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed by multilevel regression analyses. Of the invited children, 742/800 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow-up. Mean (range) of age at baseline was 9.5 years (7.7-12.1). Height, BMI, LM and BF % predicted bone mineral accrual and bone size positively and independently. Height and BMI are both positive predictors of bone accruement. LM is a more precise predictor of bone traits than BF % in both genders. The effects of height and BMI and LM on bone accruement are nearly identical in the two genders, while changes in BF % have different but positive effects on bone accretion in both boys and girls.
Studies indicate genetic and lifestyle factors can contribute to optimal bone development. In particular, the intensity level of physical activity may have an impact on bone health. This study aims to assess the relationship between physical activity at different intensities and Bone Mineral Content (BMC), Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Area (BA) accretion.
This longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Whole-body DXA scans were performed at baseline and after two years follows up. BMC, BMD, and BA were measured. The total body less head (TBLH) values were used. Physical activity (PA) was recorded by accelerometers (ActiGraph, model GT3X). Percentages of different PA intensity levels were calculated and log odds of two intensity levels of activity relative to the third level were calculated. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the categories of physical activity and bone traits.
Of 800 invited children, 742 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow up. Complete datasets were obtained in 602/742 (81%) children. Mean (range) of age was 11.5 years (9.7-13.9). PA at different intensity levels was for boys and girls respectively, sedentary 62% and 64%, low 29% for both genders and moderate to high 9% and 7% of the total time. Mean (range) BMC, BMD, and BA was 1179 g (563-2326), 0.84 g/cm2 (0.64-1.15) and 1393 cm2 (851-2164), respectively. Valid accelerometer data were obtained for a mean of 6.1 days, 13 hours per day.
There 7was a positive relationship between the log odds of moderate to high-level PA versus low level activity and BMC, BMD and BA. Children with an increased proportion of time in moderate to high-level activity as opposed to sedentary and low-level activity achieved positive effects on BMC, BMD and BA.
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) originates during childhood and adolescence. Schools are potentially effective settings for early public health prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of six physical education (PE) lessons on children's CVD risk.
This longitudinal study in 10 public schools (1218 children, aged 6-13 years), 6 intervention and 4 control schools evaluates a natural experiment, where intervention schools tripled PE to six lessons per week compared to the mandatory two PE lessons in the control schools. Baseline (2008) and 2-year follow-up measures were anthropometrics, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure and blood samples providing lipids and measures for insulin resistance. Based on these variables, a composite risk score was calculated and used for further analysis. Multivariate multilevel mixed effect regression models were used to estimate effect of intervention taking the hierarchical structure of data into account. Individual, class and school were considered random effects. Intra class correlation (ICC) was calculated.
Intervention significantly lowered mean of composite risk score with 0.17 SD (95% CI: -0.34 to -0.01). Six PE lessons per week had a beneficial effect on triglycerides (TG) levels (-0.18 SD, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.00), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-0.22 SD, 95% CI: -0.42 to -0.02) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.17 SD, 95% CI: -0.34 to 0.01).
Six PE lessons at school can reduce children's CVD risk measured as a composite risk score. The changes in risk score are considered substantial in the perspective of public health strategy for preventing CVD in later life.
An increasingly passive life-style in the Western World has led to a rise in life-style related disorders. This is a major concern for all segments of society. The county council of the municipality of Svendborg in Denmark, created six Sport Schools with increased levels of suitable physical activities, which made it possible to study the health outcomes in these children whilst comparing them to children who attended the 'normal' schools of the region using the design of a "natural experiment".
Children from the age of 6 till the age of 10, who accepted to be included in the monitoring process, were surveyed at baseline with questionnaires, physical examinations and physical and biological testing, including DXA scans. The physical examination and testing was repeated during the early stage of the study. Every week over the whole study period, the children will be followed with an automated mobile phone text message (SMS-Track) asking questions on their leisure time sports activities and the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. Children who report any such problems are monitored individually by health care personnel. Data are collected on demography, health habits and attitudes, physical characteristics, physical activity using accelerometers, motor performance, fitness, bone health, life-style disorders, injuries and musculoskeletal problems. Data collection will continue at least once a year until the children reach grade 9.
This project is embedded in a local community, which set up the intervention (The Sport Schools) and thereafter invited researchers to provide documentation and evaluation. Sport schools are well matched with the 'normal' schools, making comparisons between these suitable. However, subgroups that would be specifically targeted in lifestyle intervention studies (such as the definitely obese) could be relatively small. Therefore, results specific to minority groups may be diluted. Nonetheless, the many rigorously collected data will make it possible to study, for example, the general effect that different levels of physical activity may have on various health conditions and on proxy measures of life-style conditions. Specifically, it will help answer the question on whether increased physical activity in school has a positive effect on health in children.
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Feb;32(2):426-3110694127