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Association of Rift Valley fever virus infection with miscarriage in Sudanese women: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276732
Source
Lancet Glob Health. 2016 Sep 27;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-27-2016
Author
Maria Baudin
Ammar M Jumaa
Huda J E Jomma
Mubarak S Karsany
Göran Bucht
Jonas Näslund
Clas Ahlm
Magnus Evander
Nahla Mohamed
Source
Lancet Glob Health. 2016 Sep 27;
Date
Sep-27-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Rift Valley fever virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes infections in animals and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever lead to mass abortions in livestock, but such abortions have not been identified in human bezings. Our aim was to investigate the cause of miscarriages in febrile pregnant women in an area endemic for Rift Valley fever.
Pregnant women with fever of unknown origin who attended the governmental hospital of Port Sudan, Sudan, between June 30, 2011, and Nov 17, 2012, were sampled at admission and included in this cross-sectional study. Medical records were retrieved and haematological tests were done on patient samples. Presence of viral RNA as well as antibodies against a variety of viruses were analysed. Any association of viral infections, symptoms, and laboratory parameters to pregnancy outcome was investigated using Pearson's ?(2) test.
Of 130 pregnant women with febrile disease, 28 were infected with Rift Valley fever virus and 31 with chikungunya virus, with typical clinical and laboratory findings for the infection in question. 15 (54%) of 28 women with an acute Rift Valley fever virus infection had miscarriages compared with 12 (12%) of 102 women negative for Rift Valley fever virus (p
PubMed ID
27692776 View in PubMed
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Circulation and diagnostics of Puumala virus in Norway: nephropatia epidemica incidence and rodent population dynamics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284592
Source
APMIS. 2017 Aug;125(8):732-742
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Natacha Milhano
Lars Korslund
Magnus Evander
Clas Ahlm
Kirsti Vainio
Susanne G Dudman
Åshild Andreassen
Source
APMIS. 2017 Aug;125(8):732-742
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Arvicolinae - growth & development
Child
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
Female
Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome - diagnosis - epidemiology - virology
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome - diagnosis - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Population Dynamics
Puumala virus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Seasons
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sequence Homology
Serum - virology
Topography, Medical
Young Adult
Abstract
Hantaviruses pose a public health concern worldwide causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Puumala virus (PUUV) is the most prevalent hantavirus in Central and Northern Europe, and causes a mild form of HFRS, also known as nephropathia epidemica (NE). In nature, the main host of PUUV is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), and transmission to humans occurs through inhalation of aerosols from rodent excreta. Nephropathia epidemica is particularly prevalent in Nordic countries, however, few studies of PUUV have been performed in Norway. The aim of this study was to analyse the dynamics of PUUV in Norway and compare with bank vole population dynamics, and also to complement the current diagnostic methodology of NE in Norway. Our results showed a significant seasonal and geographical variation of NE, and a general parallel peak trend between bank vole population densities and human NE incidence. A real-time and a nested PCR were successfully established as an invaluable diagnostic tool, with detection and sequencing of PUUV in a human serum sample for the first time in Norway. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of the obtained human sample with previous Norwegian bank vole isolates.
PubMed ID
28585306 View in PubMed
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Climate change and infectious diseases in the Arctic: establishment of a circumpolar working group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257279
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Alan J Parkinson
Birgitta Evengard
Jan C Semenza
Nicholas Ogden
Malene L Børresen
Jim Berner
Michael Brubaker
Anders Sjöstedt
Magnus Evander
David M Hondula
Bettina Menne
Natalia Pshenichnaya
Prabhu Gounder
Tricia Larose
Boris Revich
Karsten Hueffer
Ann Albihn
Author Affiliation
Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Anchorage, AK, USA.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Arctic, even more so than other parts of the world, has warmed substantially over the past few decades. Temperature and humidity influence the rate of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens and thus the incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases. Higher temperatures may also allow infected host species to survive winters in larger numbers, increase the population size and expand their habitat range. The impact of these changes on human disease in the Arctic has not been fully evaluated. There is concern that climate change may shift the geographic and temporal distribution of a range of infectious diseases. Many infectious diseases are climate sensitive, where their emergence in a region is dependent on climate-related ecological changes. Most are zoonotic diseases, and can be spread between humans and animals by arthropod vectors, water, soil, wild or domestic animals. Potentially climate-sensitive zoonotic pathogens of circumpolar concern include Brucella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trichinella spp., Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacillus anthracis, Echinococcus spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporida spp., Coxiella burnetti, rabies virus, West Nile virus, Hantaviruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25317383 View in PubMed
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Declining ecosystem health and the dilution effect.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292532
Source
Sci Rep. 2016 08 08; 6:31314
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-08-2016
Author
Hussein Khalil
Frauke Ecke
Magnus Evander
Magnus Magnusson
Birger Hörnfeldt
Author Affiliation
Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogmarksgränd, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
Source
Sci Rep. 2016 08 08; 6:31314
Date
08-08-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Arvicolinae - virology
Ecosystem
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome - transmission
Predatory Behavior
Prevalence
Puumala virus
Risk
Seasons
Shrews - physiology
Strigiformes - physiology
Sweden
Zoonoses - transmission
Abstract
The "dilution effect" implies that where species vary in susceptibility to infection by a pathogen, higher diversity often leads to lower infection prevalence in hosts. For directly transmitted pathogens, non-host species may "dilute" infection directly (1) and indirectly (2). Competitors and predators may (1) alter host behavior to reduce pathogen transmission or (2) reduce host density. In a well-studied system, we tested the dilution of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) by two competitors and a predator. Our study was based on long-term PUUV infection data (2003-2013) in northern Sweden. The field vole (Microtus agrestis) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus) are bank vole competitors and Tengmalm's owl (Aegolius funereus) is a main predator of bank voles. Infection probability in bank voles decreased when common shrew density increased, suggesting that common shrews reduced PUUV transmission. Field voles suppressed bank vole density in meadows and clear-cuts and indirectly diluted PUUV infection. Further, Tengmalm's owl decline in 1980-2013 may have contributed to higher PUUV infection rates in bank voles in 2003-2013 compared to 1979-1986. Our study provides further evidence for dilution effect and suggests that owls may have an important role in reducing disease risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27499001 View in PubMed
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Detection and isolation of Sindbis virus from mosquitoes captured during an outbreak in Sweden, 2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272605
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Feb;15(2):133-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Joakim Bergqvist
Oscar Forsman
Pär Larsson
Jonas Näslund
Tobias Lilja
Cecilia Engdahl
Anders Lindstr&atildem
Åring Gylfe
Clas Ahlm
Magnus Evander
G Bucht
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015 Feb;15(2):133-40
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alphavirus Infections - epidemiology - virology
Animals
Base Sequence
Culicidae - virology
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
Disease Outbreaks
Genome, Viral - genetics
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sindbis Virus - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Mosquito-borne alphaviruses have the potential to cause large outbreaks throughout the world. Here we investigated the causative agent of an unexpected Sindbis virus (SINV) outbreak during August-September, 2013, in a previously nonendemic region of Sweden. Mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-baited CDC traps at locations close to human cases. The mosquitoes were initially screened as large pools by SINV-specific quantitative RT-PCR, and the SINV-positive mosquitoes were species determined by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, followed by sequencing the barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I gene. The proportion of the collected mosquitoes was determined by a metabarcoding strategy. By using novel strategies for PCR screening and genetic typing, a new SINV strain, L�??�?�¶v�??�?�¥nger, was isolated from a pool of 1600 mosquitoes composed of Culex, Culiseta, and Aedes mosquitoes as determined by metabarcoding. The SINV-positive mosquito Culiseta morsitans was identified by SNP analysis and sequencing. After whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the SINV L�??�?�¶v�??�?�¥nger isolate was shown to be most closely similar to recent Finnish SINV isolates. In conclusion, within a few weeks, we were able to detect and isolate a novel SINV strain and identify the mosquito vector during a sudden SINV outbreak.
PubMed ID
25700044 View in PubMed
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Detection of Sindbis and Inkoo Virus RNA in Genetically Typed Mosquito Larvae Sampled in Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283721
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016 Jul;16(7):461-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
Olov Tingström
Olivia Wesula Lwande
Jonas Näslund
Iris Spyckerelle
Cecilia Engdahl
Pontus Von Schoenberg
Clas Ahlm
Magnus Evander
Göran Bucht
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016 Jul;16(7):461-7
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Culicidae - genetics - virology
Insect Vectors - virology
Larva - genetics
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
RNA, Viral - isolation & purification
Sindbis Virus - isolation & purification
Sweden
Abstract
Mosquito-borne viruses have a widespread distribution across the globe and are known to pose serious threats to human and animal health. The maintenance and dissemination of these viruses in nature are driven through horizontal and vertical transmission. In the temperate climate of northern Sweden, there is a dearth of knowledge on whether mosquito-borne viruses that occur are transmitted transovarially. To gain a better understanding of mosquito-borne virus circulation and maintenance, mosquito larvae were sampled in northern Sweden during the first and second year after a large outbreak of Ockelbo disease in 2013 caused by Sindbis virus (SINV).
A total of 3123 larvae were sampled during the summers of 2014 and 2015 at multiple sites in northern Sweden. The larvae were homogenized and screened for viruses using RT-PCR and sequencing. Species identification of selected larvae was performed by genetic barcoding targeting the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene.
SINV RNA was detected in mosquito larvae of three different species, Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis, Oc. punctor, and Oc. diantaeus. Inkoo virus (INKV) RNA was detected in Oc. communis larvae. This finding suggested that these mosquitoes could support transovarial transmission of SINV and INKV. Detection of virus in mosquito larva may serve as an early warning for emerging arboviral diseases and add information to epidemiological investigations before, during, and after outbreaks. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the relevance of genetic barcoding as an attractive and effective method for mosquito larva typing. However, further mosquito transmission studies are needed to ascertain the possible role of different mosquito species and developmental stages in the transmission cycle of arboviruses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27159120 View in PubMed
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Experimental Infection and Transmission Competence of Sindbis Virus in Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens Mosquitoes from Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295363
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2018 Oct 06; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-06-2018
Author
Olivia Wesula Lwande
Jonas Näslund
Eva Lundmark
Kristoffer Ahlm
Clas Ahlm
Göran Bucht
Magnus Evander
Author Affiliation
1 Virology, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University , Umeå, Sweden .
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2018 Oct 06; :
Date
Oct-06-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus known to infect birds and cause intermittent outbreaks among humans in Fenno-Scandia. In Sweden, the endemic area has mainly been in central Sweden. Recently, SINV infections have emerged to northern Sweden, but the vectorial efficiency for SINV of mosquito species in this northern region has not yet been ascertained.
Mosquito larvae were sampled from the Umeå region in northern Sweden and propagated in a laboratory to adult stage to investigate the infection, dissemination, and transmission efficiency of SINV in mosquitoes.
The mosquito species were identified by DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Culex torrentium was the most abundant (82.2%) followed by Culex pipiens (14.4%), Aedes annulipes (1.1%), Anopheles claviger (1.1%), Culiseta bergrothi (1.1%), or other unidentified species (1.1%). Mosquitoes were fed with SINV-infected blood and monitored for 29 days to determine the viral extrinsic incubation period. Infection and dissemination were determined by RT-qPCR screening of dissected body parts of individual mosquitoes. Viral transmission was determined from saliva collected from individual mosquitoes at 7, 14, and 29 days. SINV was detected by cell culture using BHK-21 cells, RT-qPCR, and sequencing.
Cx. torrentium was the only mosquito species in our study that was able to transmit SINV. The overall transmission efficiency of SINV in Cx. torrentium was 6.8%. The rates of SINV infection, dissemination, and transmission in Cx. torrentium were 11%, 75%, and 83%, respectively.
Cx. torrentium may be the key vector involved in SINV transmission in northern Sweden.
PubMed ID
30300110 View in PubMed
Less detail

Experimental Infection and Transmission Competence of Sindbis Virus in Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens Mosquitoes from Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300175
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019 02; 19(2):128-133
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2019
Author
Olivia Wesula Lwande
Jonas Näslund
Eva Lundmark
Kristoffer Ahlm
Clas Ahlm
Göran Bucht
Magnus Evander
Author Affiliation
1 Virology, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University , Umeå, Sweden .
Source
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019 02; 19(2):128-133
Date
02-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Culex - virology
Female
Mosquito Vectors - virology
Sindbis Virus - physiology
Species Specificity
Sweden
Abstract
Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus known to infect birds and cause intermittent outbreaks among humans in Fenno-Scandia. In Sweden, the endemic area has mainly been in central Sweden. Recently, SINV infections have emerged to northern Sweden, but the vectorial efficiency for SINV of mosquito species in this northern region has not yet been ascertained.
Mosquito larvae were sampled from the Umeå region in northern Sweden and propagated in a laboratory to adult stage to investigate the infection, dissemination, and transmission efficiency of SINV in mosquitoes.
The mosquito species were identified by DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase I gene. Culex torrentium was the most abundant (82.2%) followed by Culex pipiens (14.4%), Aedes annulipes (1.1%), Anopheles claviger (1.1%), Culiseta bergrothi (1.1%), or other unidentified species (1.1%). Mosquitoes were fed with SINV-infected blood and monitored for 29 days to determine the viral extrinsic incubation period. Infection and dissemination were determined by RT-qPCR screening of dissected body parts of individual mosquitoes. Viral transmission was determined from saliva collected from individual mosquitoes at 7, 14, and 29 days. SINV was detected by cell culture using BHK-21 cells, RT-qPCR, and sequencing.
Cx. torrentium was the only mosquito species in our study that was able to transmit SINV. The overall transmission efficiency of SINV in Cx. torrentium was 6.8%. The rates of SINV infection, dissemination, and transmission in Cx. torrentium were 11%, 75%, and 83%, respectively.
Cx. torrentium may be the key vector involved in SINV transmission in northern Sweden.
PubMed ID
30300110 View in PubMed
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Human Puumala hantavirus infection in northern Sweden; increased seroprevalence and association to risk and health factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283690
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 13;16(1):566
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-13-2016
Author
Kristina Bergstedt Oscarsson
Alette Brorstad
Maria Baudin
Anne Lindberg
Annika Forssén
Magnus Evander
Marie Eriksson
Clas Ahlm
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 13;16(1):566
Date
Oct-13-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - virology
Female
Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome - blood - complications - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Puumala virus - immunology - isolation & purification
Risk factors
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The rodent borne Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in central and northern Europe. The number of cases has increased and northern Sweden has experienced large outbreaks in 1998 and 2006-2007 which raised questions regarding the level of immunity in the human population.
A randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years from northern Sweden were invited during 2009 to participate in a WHO project for monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease. Health and risk factors were evaluated and sera from 1,600 participants were available for analysis for specific PUUV IgG antibodies using a recombinant PUUV nucleocapsid protein ELISA.
The overall seroprevalence in the investigated population was 13.4 %, which is a 50 % increase compared to a similar study only two decades previously. The prevalence of PUUV IgG increased with age, and among 65-75 years it was 22 %. More men (15.3 %) than women (11.4 %) were seropositive (p?
Notes
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PubMed ID
27737653 View in PubMed
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