This study assesses the association between dietary cholesterol intake and the risk of various cancers.
Mailed questionnaires were completed between 1994 and 1997 in eight Canadian provinces by 1182 incident histologically confirmed cases of the stomach, 1727 of the colon, 1447 of the rectum, 628 of the pancreas, 3341 of the lung, 2362 of the breast, 442 of the ovary, 1799 of the prostate, 686 of the testis, 1345 of the kidney, 1029 of the bladder, 1009 of the brain, 1666 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), 1069 leukemia and 5039 population controls. Information on dietary habits and nutrition intake were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire, which provided data on eating habits 2 years before the study. Odds ratios (ORs) were derived by unconditional logistic regression to adjust for total energy intake and other potential confounding factors.
Dietary cholesterol was positively associated with the risk of cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast (mainly postmenopausal), kidney, bladder and NHL: the ORs for the highest versus the lowest quartile ranged from 1.4 to 1.7. In contrast, cholesterol intake was inversely associated with prostate cancer.
Our findings add to the evidence that high cholesterol intake is linked to increased risk of various cancers. A diet low in cholesterol may play a role in the prevention of several cancers.
Almost 30% of hypertension among Canadians may be attributed to excess dietary sodium.
We examined the average sodium intake of Canadians aged 30 years and over, with and without hypertension, by age, sex and diabetes status using 24-hour recall data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition. We compared absolute (crude) average sodium intake levels of those with and without hypertension to the 2009 Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) guidelines and adjusted average sodium intake between those with and without hypertension.
Both those with and without diagnosed hypertension display average sodium intakes well above the 1500 mg/day recommended by the 2009 CHEP guidelines (2950 mg/day and 3175 mg/day, respectively). After confounding adjustment, those with hypertension have significantly higher average sodium intake (p = .0124). Stratified subgroup analyses found the average sodium intake among those with hypertension was higher for men between 30 and 49 years old (p = .0265), women between 50 and 69 years old (p = .0083) and those without diabetes (p = .0071) when compared to their counterparts without hypertension.
Better approaches are needed to reduce sodium intake in hypertension patients, as well as the general population.
To examine the relationship between nicotine dependence and attitudes, predicted behaviours and support regarding restrictions on smoking.
Population-based, computer-assisted, telephone survey of adults in Ontario, Canada using a two-stage stratified sampling design; 1764 interviews were completed (65% response rate) yielding 424 (24%) cigarette smokers, of whom 354 (83%) smoked daily. The Heaviness of Smoking Index was used as a measure of nicotine dependence.
Attitudes toward smoking restrictions, predicted compliance with more restrictions, and support for total smoking bans.
Attitudes favorable to smoking restrictions tended to decrease with increased nicotine dependence, but the associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for demographic variables. Predicted compliance with more restrictions on smoking decreased with higher levels of dependence, as did support for a total ban on smoking in restaurants, workplaces, bingo halls, and hockey arenas. Support for smoking bans in food courts, family fast food restaurants, and bars and taverns did not vary significantly with level of nicotine dependence.
Level of nicotine dependence is associated with intended behaviors and support for smoking restrictions in some settings. These results have implications for tobacco control programs and policies.