New equipment for measuring intraocular pressure have been introduced lately. One of these is the Keeler Pulsair non-contact tonometer which uses pressurized air in measurement. It is found to be safe and easy to use in practice, but it seems to give 1.5-2.0 mmHg lower reading than the Goldmann applanation tonometer. This was confirmed by the present study, where non-contact tonometry was controlled by applanation tonometry with a 2-3 week delay between the measurements. However, for screening procedures the accuracy of the apparatus can be considered as sufficient.
Mass health screenings for the elderly have been undertaken in Kuopio since 1983. Three different age groups, 65, 70 and 75 years old are called for examination so that each group is examined at 5-year intervals. In 1989 an ophthalmologic examination was included in the protocol for those born in 1914 and 1924. A total number of 1133 persons were recruited, 833 (73.5%) of which actually participated in the study. Cataract was found to be the most frequent visual handicapper. Of participants with visual acuity less than 0.3 at least in one eye, cataract was observed in 41.7% of the younger and in 91.1% of the older group. Age-dependent macular degeneration and glaucoma were less frequent than cataract. Visual acuity of less than 0.3 in the better eye was observed in 5.5% of the older group.
In this study we tested the hypothesis that the Leu7Pro7 polymorphism in prepro neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene could be a risk marker for the development of diabetic retinopathy and analyzed a well characterized cohort of patients with Type 2 diabetes followed-up for 10 years from the time of diagnosis. The frequency of Leu7/Pro7-polymorphism was 9.3% (8 out of 86). At baseline, the frequency of retinopathy in patients with the Leu7/Pro7-polymorphism was 25% (2 out of 8) and in those without it 6.4% (5 out of 78) (p=0.126). At 10-year the respective figures were 88% and 50% (p=-0.040). The odds ratio for Leu7/Pro7-polymorphism in logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender and HbA1c was 8.97 (95% confidence intervals 1.09-98.0; p=0.049). Our finding based on elderly Finnish Type 2 diabetic subjects suggests that the Leu7Pro7-genotype in preproNPY gene is associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) of the lens capsule is a well-known risk factor for open-angle glaucoma. Its prevalence is known to increase by age in the same way as prevalence of age-dependent cataract. In the present paper the prevalence of PEX varied from 8.5 to 13.2% increasing by age. Lens opacities were statistically significantly more common in PEX-positive than PEX-negative eyes. The importance of detecting exfoliation from the lens surface is discussed.