Many generativist accounts (e.g., Wexler, 1998) argue for very early knowledge of inflection on the basis of very low rates of person/number marking errors in young children's speech. However, studies of Spanish (Aguado-Orea & Pine, 2015) and Brazilian Portuguese (Rubino & Pine, 1998) have revealed that these low overall error rates actually hide important differences across the verb paradigm. The present study investigated children's production of person/number marked verbs by eliciting present tense verb forms from 82 native Finnish-speaking children aged 2;2-4;8?years. Four main findings were observed: (a) Rates of person/number marking errors were higher in low-frequency person/number contexts, even excluding children who showed no evidence of having learned the relevant morpheme, (b) most errors involved the use of higher frequency forms in lower frequency person/number contexts, (c) error rates were predicted not only by the frequency of person/number contexts (e.g., 3sg?>?2pl) but also by the frequency of individual "ready-inflected" lexical target forms, and (d) for low-frequency verbs, lower error rates were observed for verbs with high phonological neighborhood density. It is concluded that any successful account of the development of verb inflection will need to incorporate both (a) rote-storage and retrieval of individual inflected forms and (b) phonological analogy across them.
One hundred and eighty-eight bicycle-car accidents in four cities were studied by multidisciplinary in-depth analysis. The sample was representative of the national accident statistics. All the accidents were analyzed in detail to reconstruct the actual movements of those involved and to assess detection of the other party. In 37% of collisions, neither driver nor cyclist realized the danger or had time to yield. In the remaining collisions, the driver (27%), the cyclist (24%) or both (12%) did something to avert the accident. Two common mechanisms underlying the accidents were identified. First, allocation of attention such that others were not detected, and second, unjustified expectations about the behavior of others. These mechanisms were found to be closely related to the system of two-way cycle tracks and to the fact that the general priority rule is applied to the crossings of a cycle track and a roadway. The most frequent accident type among collisions between cyclists and cars at bicycle crossings was a driver turning right and a bicycle coming from the driver's right along a cycle track. The result confirmed an earlier finding (Accident Analysis and Prevention 28, 147-153, 1996) that drivers turning right hit cyclists because they looked left for cars during the critical phase. Only 11% of drivers noticed the cyclist before impact. Cyclists' behavior was in marked contrast to that of drivers. In these cases, 68% of cyclists noticed the driver before the accident, and 92% of those who noticed believed the driver would give way as required by law. Cyclists with a driving license and those who cycled daily through the accident site were involved in different accident types to other cyclists.
The accident data base of the City of Helsinki shows that when drivers cross a cycle path as they enter a non-signalized intersection, the clearly dominant type of car-cycle crashes is that in which a cyclist comes from the right and the driver is turning right, in marked contrast to the cases with drivers turning left (Pasanen 1992; City of Helsinki, Traffic Planning Department, Report L4). This study first tested an explanation that drivers turning right simply focus their attention on the cars coming from the left-those coming from the right posing no threat to them-and fail to see the cyclist from the right early enough. Drivers' scanning behavior was studied at two T-intersections. Two well-hidden video cameras were used, one to measure the head movements of the approaching drivers and the other one to measure speed and distance from the cycle crossroad. The results supported the hypothesis: the drivers turning right scanned the right leg of the T-intersection less frequently and later than those turning left. Thus, it appears that drivers develop a visual scanning strategy which concentrates on detection of more frequent and major dangers but ignores and may even mask visual information on less frequent dangers. The second part of the study evaluated different countermeasures, including speed humps, in terms of drivers' visual search behavior. The results suggested that speed-reducing countermeasures changed drivers' visual search patterns in favor of the cyclists coming from the right, presumably at least in part due to the fact that drivers were simply provided with more time to focus on each direction.
Clinical studies have shown a relationship between allergic disorders and depression, panic disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and social anxiety for a significant subset of patients with these disorders. The nature of the relationship, whether due to shared environmental or biologic vulnerabilities or as a result of the stress of chronic illness, has been less clear. By examining the covariance of atopic disorders and depressive symptoms in a community sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, the contribution of genetic and/or shared environmental etiological factors can be established. A Finnish sample of 1337 MZ and 2506 DZ twin pairs, ages 33-60 years, was sent questionnaires inquiring about history of asthma, eczema, and atopic rhinitis, as well as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The nature of the covariation between twins of these symptoms was investigated by fitting competing genetic and environmental models. Within-person correlation between atopic symptoms and BDI was 0.103 (P
Like other atopic diseases, hay fever is known to cluster in families. This clustering is due either to effects of a shared family environment or to genetic inheritance. By comparing the occurrence of hay fever among monozygous (MZ) and dizygous (DZ) twin pairs, we were able to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of hay fever.
A questionnaire mailed to a nationwide sample of 2483 families with 16-year-old twins furnished data for the cumulative incidence of physician-diagnosed hay fever among these adolescents and their parents.
Among the 1765 twin pairs with data available for analysis, hay fever was reported for 14.1% of boys (95% CI=12.4-15.8%) and 10.0% of girls (95% CI=8.6-11.4%). The MZ twin pairs (probandwise concordance rate=60.3%, 95% CI =52-68%) were significantly more concordant for hay fever than were DZ twin pairs (31.5%, 95% CI=26-36%). Genetic factors accounted for 74-82% of the interindividual variability in liability to hay fever, variation in shared family environment for 7% at most, and unique (individual) environment for 18%.
Familial occurrence of hay fever is mainly due to genes predisposing to the trait. Environmental exposures shared in common by family members but varying between families appear to account for at most a modest proportion of the variability in risk of developing hay fever.
It has been suggested that allergic sensitization is inversely related to the number of siblings in the family.
To study whether a similar relation can be observed for hay fever and asthma among Finnish adolescents in a population with relatively low prevalence of atopic diseases.
A questionnaire mailed to a nationwide sample of 1849 families with 16-year-old twins assessing the cumulative incidence of doctor-diagnosed hay fever and asthma among the adolescents and the number of older siblings in the family by parental report.
The cumulative incidence of hay fever was significantly lower among the adolescents with three or more older siblings (3.9%, 95% CI = 1.2-6.5%) compared with adolescents with fewer older siblings (12.7%, 95% CI = 11.4-14.0%). There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of asthma among the adolescents according to the number of older siblings in the family.
Large number of older siblings appears to be protective against the development of hay fever.
Gene-environment interactions and inheritance of asthma were studied in 16-yr-old twins and their parents who participated in the nationwide Finnish Twin Cohort Study. Between 1991 and 1994, questionnaires, including a question on physician-diagnosed asthma, were mailed to the members of 2,483 twin families. The individual response rate ranged from 82 to 93%. Information on parental asthma status allowed the genetic modeling of asthma data in two different groups of twins. In families where one of the parents was asthmatic, as much as 87% of the variation in susceptibility to asthma in twins was explained by genetic factors. On the other hand, for twins whose parents were unaffected, a model including environmental effect alone was sufficient to explain the development of asthma. Genetic influences could not be totally excluded, but their role was significantly smaller. These results indicate that the presence of asthma in successive generations is more likely caused by shared genes than shared environmental risk factors; however, substantial heterogeneity among families may exist. Genetic analysis, especially among the families with an obvious familial component in development of asthma, may enhance the chances of revealing the pathogenetic mechanisms
To study the total daily intake of vitamin D from food and supplements among Finnish children aged 3 months to 3 years, the dietary sources of vitamin D and the association between vitamin D intake and sociodemographic factors.
The subjects are participants in the Finnish Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study born between October 1997 and October 1998. At the age of 3 and 6 months, 1, 2 and 3 years, 342 (72% of the invited families), 298 (63%), 267 (56%), 233 (49%) and 209 (44%) families, respectively, participated in the present study. Food consumption was assessed by a 3-day food record. A structured questionnaire was used to record the parents' socioeconomic status.
The mean dietary vitamin D intake exceeded the recommendation (10 microg/day) at the age of 3 (11.0 microg) and 6 months (12.0 microg), but decreased thereafter being 9.8, 5.0 and 4.1 microg at 1, 2 and 3 years of age, respectively. Among the children 91, 91, 81, 42 and 26% used vitamin D supplements at the age of 3 and 6 months, and 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. In children not using vitamin D supplements, vitamin D intake was less than 10 microg/day at all ages. Vitamin D intake from food did not differ in children who used and did not use vitamin D supplements. Vitamin D supplements were the main source of vitamin D intake in all age groups studied, followed by vitamin D-fortified infant formula in 3-month-olds and infant formula and baby foods in 6-month-olds. After the age of 1 year, the most important food sources of vitamin D were margarine, fish, baby foods, low-fat milk and eggs. Sociodemographic factors, especially the number of children in the family and maternal age, were associated with the total vitamin D intake and vitamin D supplement use.
Vitamin D supplements are not used according to the dietary recommendations in a substantial proportion of Finnish children.
The primary purpose of this study was to analyse the overall survival and local recurrence rate after extended resection of locally advanced rectal cancer. The second aim was to determine the ability of the response to radiological irradiation to predict R0 resection.
A retrospective study was performed of 94 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer operated on at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland between 2005 and 2013. Data were collected from patient records. All patients were treated with an en bloc resection. Sixty-two patients received preoperative long-term chemoradiotherapy.
The 30-day mortality was 3.2%. Local recurrence occurred in 10 (10.6%) patients. The cumulative 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival to each year was 89.4%, 68.3% and 51.8%. The most important prognostic factor for both local recurrence (P = 0.006) and survival (P = 0.003) was an R0 resection. A poor or no response seen on posttreatment MRI predicted local recurrence (P = 0.045) and decreased disease-free survival in patients treated curatively (P = 0.052). The histological tumour regression grade was not associated with local recurrence or survival.
Multivisceral resection offers a 5-year survival of over 50% and local control of advanced rectal cancer in nearly 90% of carefully selected patients.
Most of the counselling in health care targeted at child nutrition is delivered via the parents, but little is known about the effects of such counselling on the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of the parents. In the Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project for Children (STRIP), we studied how 6.5 years of child-targeted nutrition counselling affected the knowledge, attitudes and dietary habits of the parent mainly responsible for food purchase and preparation. We used a questionnaire and a 24-h recall interview in a time-restricted cohort of 98 families belonging to the intervention group and 89 families belonging to the control group in the STRIP project. After controlling for background variables, the intervention parents had better knowledge than the control parents of causal relationships between food choices and coronary heart disease and of the nutritional composition of foods. Knowledge of nutrition concepts did not differ between the two groups. The quality of fat was better in the diet of the intervention parents, they consumed less salt and they also had more knowledge concerning these subjects compared to the control parents (higher behavioural capability scores). The behavioural capability scores of the total group correlated poorly with their nutrient intakes. Thus, child-targeted nutrition intervention delivered to the parents increased parental nutrition knowledge and improved the quality of the parents' diet. However, as nutrition knowledge of the parents correlated poorly with their nutrient intakes, other factors than knowledge appear to influence parental dietary decisions.