Anthropometric measurement is a noninvasive and cost-efficient method for nutritional assessment. The study aims to present age- and gender-specific anthropometric reference data for Swedish elderly in relation to common medical conditions, and also formulate prediction equations for such anthropometric measurements.
A cross-sectional study among random heterogeneous sample of 3360 subjects, aged 60-99 years, from a population study 'Good Aging in Scania. Means (±s.d.) and percentiles for height, weight, waist-, hip-, arm-, calf circumferences, triceps- (TST) and subscapular skinfold thickness (SST), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were presented. The values were estimated based on the prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI), cardiac failure (CHF), stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia and dependence in daily living activities (ADL). Linear regression analysis was used to formulate the prediction equations.
Mean BMI was 27.5±5.8?kg/m(2) (men) and 27.2±8.1?kg/m(2) (women). WHR was higher among men (Men: 0.98±0.3, women: 0.87±0.2), except at age 85+ (women: 0.91±0.6). TST was 6.7±0.4?mm higher among women. Men with MI had BMI: 28.6±4.8?kg/m(2) and SST: 21±9.2?mm, whereas subjects with dementia had lower weight (by 9.5±2.9?kg) compared with the non-demented. ADL-dependent women had BMI= 29.0±3.9?kg/m(2), TST=19.2±1.3?mm.
New normative data on gender- and age-specific anthropometrics on the general elderly population are presented. Cardiovascular diseases are associated with subcutaneous and central adiposity opposed to fat loss with dementia. ADL dependence indicates inadequate physical activity. The prediction models could be used as possible indicators monitoring physical activity and adiposity among the general elderly population hence potential health indicators in health promotion.
Previous observational studies on the association between brachial blood pressure (BP) and cognition have reported conflicting results. Central BP has been hypothesized to be more strongly related to cognition than brachial BP. The aim of this study was to assess the association between brachial as well as central BP and cognitive function, both cross-sectionally and with brachial BP measured 17 years before cognitive testing. The study population comprised 2548 individuals aged 61-85 years at follow-up (61.4% women). The cognitive tests administered were A Quick Test of cognitive speed and the Mini Mental State Examination. In fully adjusted linear regressions, small but significant cross-sectional associations were found between higher BP (systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure) and worse results on both of the cognitive tests (P-values
The degree of misclassification of obesity and undernutrition among elders owing to inaccurate height measurements is investigated using height predicted by knee height (KH) and demispan equations.
Cross-sectional investigation was done among a random heterogeneous sample from five municipalities in Southern Sweden from a general population study 'Good Aging in Skåne' (GÅS). The sample comprised two groups: group 1 (KH) including 2839 GÅS baseline participants aged 60-93 years with a valid KH measurement and group 2 (demispan) including 2871 GÅS follow-up examination participants (1573 baseline; 1298 new), aged 60-99 years, with a valid demispan measurement. Participation rate was 80%. Height, weight, KH and demispan were measured. KH and demispan equations were formulated using linear regression analysis among participants aged 60-64 years as reference. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated in kg/m(2).
Undernutrition prevalences in men and women were 3.9 and 8.6% by KH, compared with 2.4 and 5.4% by standard BMI, and more pronounced for all women aged 85+ years (21% vs 11.3%). The corresponding value in women aged 85+ years by demispan was 16.5% vs 10% by standard BMI. Obesity prevalences in men and women were 17.5 and 14.6% by KH, compared with 19.0 and 20.03% by standard BMI. Values among women aged 85+ years were 3.7% vs 10.4% by KH and 6.5% vs 12.7% by demispan compared with the standard.
There is an age-related misclassification of undernutrition and obesity attributed to inaccurate height estimation among the elderly. This could affect the management of patients at true risk. We therefore propose using KH- and demispan-based formulae to address this issue.
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