The purpose of the study was to discover the effects of physical activity on men's diets. The food consumption of 1306 men aged 50 to 69 years was studied using the dietary history method. The men were grouped in four classes according to their physical activity. With increasing activity their consumptions of cereals, potatoes, milk and milk products, fats and sugar increased. The men in East Finland used more milk, butter and fish than those in the West. The consumption of cereals, potatoes and eggs was higher in West than in East Finland. The intake of energy and energy yielding nutrients was greatly dependent on the physical activity but their contributions to the total energy intake were independent. The consumption of minerals and vitamins was adequate in all activity classes. The changes in the diet caused by physical activity seemed to be more quantitative than qualitative.
A controlled intervention trial, with the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) could be decreased by the use of serum-cholesterol-lowering (SCL) diet, was carried out in 2 mental hospitals near Helsinki in 1959--71. The subjects were hospitalized middle-aged men. One of the hospitals received the SCL diet, i.e. a diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol and relatively high in polyunsaturated fats, while the other served as the control with a normal hospital diet. Six years later the diets were reversed, and the trial was continued another 6 years. The use of the SCL diet was associated with markedly lowered serum-cholesterol values. The incidence of CHD, as measured by the appearance of certain electrocardiographic patterns and by the occurrence of coronary deaths, was in both hospitals during the SCL-diet periods about half that during the normal-diet periods. An examination of a number of potential confounding variables indicated that the changes in them were small and failed to account for the considerable reduction in the incidence of CHD. It is concluded that the use of the serum-cholesterol-lowering diet exerted a substantial preventive effect on CHD.
The aim of this study was to examine whether work with a video display terminal and exposure to the magnetic fields of video display terminals are related to spontaneous abortion. The study was conducted among women employed as bank clerks and clerical workers in three companies in Finland. The cases (191 spontaneous abortions) and controls (394 births) were identified from Finnish medical registers for the years 1975-1985. Use of video display terminals was defined using the workers' own reports and information provided by the companies. The assessment of exposure to the magnetic fields was based on measurements of the fields of video display terminals. The odds ratio for spontaneous abortion for working with video display terminals was not increased (odds ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.6). However, the odds ratio for workers who had used a video display terminal with a high level of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (> 0.9 microT) was 3.4 (95% confidence interval 1.4-8.6) compared with workers using a terminal with a low level of these magnetic fields (
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Nov 15;138(10):902-3; author reply 903-58237976
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Dec 1;138(11):1017-98256777
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Nov 15;138(10):902; author reply 903-58305042
In a cross sectional study 279 lumberjacks exposed to chain saw vibration and a reference group of 178 peat bog workers were examined. The mean ages of the two groups were 34.6 and 33.1 years, respectively. The lumberjacks' mean duration of exposure to vibration was 10.4 years. The study consisted of a questionnaire and a clinical examination, including radiographs of the wrists. The prevalence of reported white finger symptoms was 18% for the lumberjacks and 3% for the referents, whereas that of numbness in the upper extremities was 51% and 22%, respectively. Among lumberjacks the occurrence of white finger symptoms increased significantly with the duration of exposure to vibration but was not associated with age or smoking. The prevalence of the numbing of the upper extremities increased linearly with age in both groups, but it was not associated with duration of exposure after adjustment for age. Among lumberjacks there was a significant association between the numbing symptom and the white finger symptom, but not among the referents. A high prevalence of numbing in the upper extremities among the lumberjacks could be at least partly explained by occupational factors other than vibration--work posture, for example. Radiographically, cysts were found in the wrist bones of 8-9% of both groups. The exposure to chain saw vibration no longer seems to be a determinant in the development of vacuoles in the carpal bones.
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