The age and maintenance of dentures, and denture-cleaning habits, were studied by an interview survey. The material represented nation-wide the Finnish population aged greater than or equal to 15 years old, and there were 957 interviewees, of whom 328 were denture wearers. In total, 45% of the upper and 40% of the lower dentures were over 10 years old. More than one-third of the dentures more than 5 years old had never been maintained during that time. Individuals whose dentures had been made and fitted by dental technicians visited dentists less frequently than individuals whose dentures had been made by dentists. Over 80% of the denture wearers reported cleaning their dentures by brushing at least once a day, and women cleaned them more frequently than men. The present findings suggest that denture wearers should be a special target group for dental health education, for the development of the latter, and for the development of dental health care services in the future.
A questionnaire survey of all members of the Psoriasis Society of the Greater Helsinki area was carried out during March and April 1984 in order to determine the course of psoriasis. 1517 (85.4%) of the members responded; 1050 of them had psoriasis with skin symptoms only (psoriasis; P) and 400 had also joint symptoms (psoriatic arthritis; PA). In two thirds, the psoriasis had started before the age of 30 years. Skin lesions were more frequent in the PA-group than in the P-group, and more severe in men than in women in both groups. Of the 400 with PA, about 70% had moderate to very severe discomfort in their joints. Most of the patients had experienced their first joint symptoms at the age of 20 to 49 years. In the majority of the patients with PA the skin symptoms begun before the joint symptoms; in 7% the joint symptoms had preceded the skin symptoms; and in 10% both symptoms had begun simultaneously.
How bruxism develops from adolescence to early adulthood remains unclear. A previous database was revisited to evaluate the natural course of self-reported tooth grinding and clenching among young Finns aged 14-23 using four assessments. Overall, the self-reported frequencies of both grinding and clenching increased during the examination period: from 13.7% to 21.7% and from 9.2% to 14.8%, respectively. There were significant increases (without a statistically significant difference between genders) in both grinding (P = 0.002) and clenching (P = 0.015) between 15 and 23 years. A significant rise in grinding between 18 and 23 years was also found (P = 0.011). It is concluded that self-reported bruxism increases from adolescence to young adulthood. Moreover, there are large differences between individuals, and fluctuations may occur in the natural course of bruxism.
To investigate the association of smoking with bruxism while controlling for genetic and environmental factors using a co-twin-control design. Especially, the role of nicotine dependence was studied in this context.
The material derives from the Finnish Twin Cohort consisting of 12,502 twin individuals who responded to a questionnaire in 1990 (response rate of 77%). All were born in 1930-1957, the mean age being 44 years. The questionnaire covered 103 multiple choice questions, 7 dealing with tobacco use and 22 with sleep and vigilance matters, including perceived bruxism. In addition, a subsample derived from the Nicotine Addiction Genetics Finland Study containing 445 twin individuals was studied.
In age- and gender-controlled multinomial logistic regression, both monthly and rarely reported bruxism associated with both current cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.74 and 1.64) and former cigarette smoking (OR = 1.64 and 1.47). Weekly bruxism associated with current smoking (OR = 2.85). Current smokers smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day reported weekly bruxism more likely (OR = 1.61-1.97) than those smoking less. Among twin pairs (N = 142) in which one twin was a weekly bruxer and the cotwin a never bruxer, there were 13 monozygotic pairs in which one twin was a current smoker and the other twin was not. In all cases, the bruxer was the smoker (p = .0003). Nicotine dependence associated significantly with bruxism.
Our twin study provides novel evidence for a possible causal link between tobacco use and bruxism among middle-aged adults. Nicotine dependence may be a significant predisposing factor for bruxism.
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Cites: Pharmacogenomics J. 2008 Jun;8(3):209-1917549066
A questionnaire survey of all members of the Psoriasis Society of the Greater Helsinki area was carried out to determine the prevalence of craniomandibular (CM) disorders in psoriasis. 1517 (85%) of the psoriatic members responded; 1050 had skin symptoms (psoriasis; P) and 400 skin and joint symptoms (psoriatic arthritis; PA). The most characteristic CM symptom was pain in the temporomandibular joint area. A high number of subjective symptoms correlated with poor general state of health, stress, pruritus of skin lesions, occlusal parafunctions and impaired chewing ability. Patients with PA had symptoms of CM disorders twice as frequently as patients with P. A high number of symptoms of CM disorders correlated with the number of other joints affected by PA.
In Finland, not only dentists but also dental technicians with special training have the right to supply clients with complete dentures. The present study investigated how the demand for their services is distributed between these two professional groups, and what are the factors affecting the distribution. The material consisted of 220 randomly selected subjects who had lost all their teeth in one or both jaws. Of the full dentures worn, 50% had been made by a dentist and 41% by a dental technician, while in 10% one denture, either maxillary or mandibular, was made by a dentist and the other by a dental technician. 56% of the subjects said they would choose a dental technician the next time health center services become more general and patients are more able to get treatment by dentists at a reduced cost, it seems probable that the majority of the edentulous will again resort to the dentists. However, judging by the current attitudes, a considerable number of the edentulous will continue to resort directly to the dental technician for the supply of dentures.
Sizes of horizontal wear facets of maxillary anterior teeth were studied longitudinally from the primary dentition at age five to the young adult dentition at the age of 18 years. By a planimetric method, we calculated the wear areas on dental casts taken at the ages of five, ten, 14, and 18 years from the dentition of 39 healthy, orthodontically untreated subjects with good morphological occlusion. For young adults, we also studied the association between the amount of wear and reported parafunctions, maximal bite force, salivary buffer capacity, salivary flow rate, and some cephalometric variables. Size of wear facets on all anterior teeth increased with age. Significant correlations were found between the total wear areas of the six anterior primary teeth at five years of age and those of their permanent successors at age 14 (r = 0.44) and 18 (r = 0.39). For an individual, tooth wear at five years of age was, however, of low predictive value for tooth wear in young adulthood, whereas tooth wear at 14 years of age predicted it well (r = 0.89). Highest correlations between tooth wear and background factors at 18 years of age were found for maximal anterior bite force (r = 0.44) and for the size of the gonial angle (r = -0.31). Wear of anterior teeth was not associated with reported parafunctions in young adulthood.
Longitudinal variations of subjective symptoms and clinical signs of craniomandibular disorders, orofacial parafunctions, and occlusal conditions were examined in 131 Finnish adolescents. Patients were interviewed and clinically examined at the ages of 14, 15, and 18 years. Signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders were common, although usually mild. Reported and recorded temporomandibular clicking sounds were the most frequent findings and increased with age. They showed, however, no predictable pattern, and only a few patients consistently reported clicking sounds or had them recorded. Although the frequency of craniomandibular disorders according to Helkimo's clinical dysfunction index was high at each examination, there also was great intraindividual fluctuation longitudinally; impairment and improvement occurred almost equally often, showing no predictable pattern. Only 3% of those tested consistently had an index value of more than I. Thus, even longer follow-up studies are needed to understand natural longitudinal variations and evaluate the need and demand for treatment of craniomandibular disorder.
The aim of this investigation was to study associations between the state of dentition and socio-medical aspects in psoriatics. It was found that the number of remaining teeth in subjects under 65 years of age was higher in psoriatics with skin symptoms (P-group) than in psoriatics with skin and joint symptoms (PA-group) (P less than 0.01), this rate being higher than that found among the general population in Finland. In younger subjects, women in the P-group wore removable dentures more frequently than did women in the PA-group (P less than 0.05), whereas among older subjects men in the PA-group wore removable dentures more frequently than did men in the P-group (P less than 0.001). In the log-linear model that was applied, more advanced age, lower level of education and infrequent dental visits were associated with a low number of remaining teeth in both the P-group and the PA-group. A poor general state of health in the P-group and a high number of teeth, indicating that there is an association between severity of general disease and dental health status.