This paper presents a review of injury dynamics of jaw fractures sustained by 1374 patients in the county of Stockholm during 1978-1980 = M1 (795 patients) and 1988-1990 = M2 (579 patients). The material comprised 1620 mandibular (M1 = 904, M2 = 716) and 439 maxillary (M1 = 249, M2 = 190) fractures. Forty-three per cent of the mandibular fractures and 40% of the maxillary fractures were single fractures in M1. The corresponding figures for M2 were 35% and 43%. During both periods the anatomical region most frequently fractured was the mandibular condyle (M1 = 35%, M2 = 29%). Violence was the cause in 39% of all fractures and 42% of the mandibular fractures (M2). This compared to M1 confirms other reports of altered trends in jaw fractures related to violence during the 1980's. The proportion of jaw fractures caused by traffic increased slightly between the periods.
This paper presents a retrospective review of jaw fractures sustained by 795 individuals in the county of Stockholm from 1978-80. The material comprised 904 mandibular and 249 maxillary fractures, a total of 1.153 fractures. The present part of the study concerns the relationship between etiologic factors and fracture location. Single fractures were noted in 43% of the mandibular fractures and in 4% of the maxillary fractures. The region most frequently fractured was the mandibular condyle (19% of all fractures). Violence was the etiologic in 42% of the total number of fractures and 47% of mandibular fractures. Compared to earlier reports, this seems to represent an increase over the last decades and probably reflects a general trend towards greater incidence of violence in society. Jaw fractures caused by traffic accidents accounted for 25% of all fractures and have decreased, probably as a result of the safety belt law of 1975 and better traffic security reforms. However, the severe Le Fort III fractures, combined with unconciousness and neurological injuries, are mainly the result of on traffic accidents. Falls accounted to 23% of the fractures, mostly localized to the mandible (81%).
The material comprised patients from the Stockholm region with jaws fractured during the years 1978-1980. It is the first time a total material is reported from this area. The following data were registered from case sheets and radiographs: age, sex and nationality, time of injury, admittance clinic, time spent in hospital, delay before treatment, aetiology of injury, associated consumption of alcohol or narcotics, localisation and number of fractures, additional injuries, treatment complications and cooperation.
Jaw fractures are less frequent in children than in adults. Very few studies exclusively on jaw fractures in children have been reported. From an investigation earlier published about jaw fractures in the country of Stockholm during the years 1978, 1979 and 1980 the authors have selected all cases of jaw fractures in children and adolescents below the age of 20. One hundred and seventy-one patients were studied, 128 boys and 43 girls. The ratio between boys and girls was 3:1. The material was separated into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and 16-20 years. Sixty percent of the fractures were found in the older age groups. The majority of the injuries (62%) occurred during the period May-September, mostly on Fridays and Saturdays, in the younger groups in day time, in the older group during the evening. Fractures due to falling and playing dominated in the younger age groups, but decreased with age. Even if all bicycle traffic accidents were excluded, this vehicle caused 31% of all play and sporting accidents. The relatively percentage of traffic accidents increased steadily from 17 to 42% in the age groups. In the oldest age group violence exceeded traffic as the dominating cause. Le Fort fractures were not found in the younger groups, were fractures of the mandibular condyle and maxillary alveolar process dominated. An erupted tooth in the fracture line was registered in 43% of the cases. Most patients received outpatient treatment.
The material comprised patients from the Stockholm region with jaw fractures during 1978-1980 and 1988-1990. The study showed that there had been a decrease of jaw fractures in Stockholm during the two periods. Some of the findings indicated that the injuries had become more serious while this was contradicted by others. There was no conclusive evidence of a significant increase in either the number or severity of injuries due to violence or traffic accidents. On the contrary the study indicated that the decrease of jaw fractures had continued.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and microbiological status of implants after 10 years of functional load in patients treated for partial edentulism.
15 patients, each successfully treated with 2-6 implants ad modum Br?nemark placed in free-standing fixed prostheses, were included in the study.
Clinical evaluation revealed similar degrees of inflammation around teeth and implants. The probing pocket depth (PPD) was significantly greater around implants than around teeth. The mean marginal bone loss during 10 years of functional load was comparable to that found at the time of the 5-year follow-up. 74% of the implants remained free of marginal bone loss exceeding 1 mm. Marginal bone loss exceeding 2 mm, was found at only 5 sites. No marked differences in bacteria were present between teeth and implants. T. denticola, S. intermedia and P. micros were the commonest organisms detected around teeth and implants. The periodontal pathogens A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, B. forsythus, and T. denticola, were found at implants with a marginal bone loss of more than 2 mm.
Our study shows that the long-term results with implants in partially dentate patients are similar to those seen in edentulous patients and that no significant change occurred after 5-year follow-up over an additional period of 5 years.
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is associated with sympathetic nervous activation and inflammation. SAH could therefore theoretically be a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term (=1 year) SAH survivors had an increased risk of death due to cardiovascular causes.
SAH patients =18 years treated at Umeå University Hospital between 1986 and 2006 were eligible for inclusion. Deceased patients were identified in the Swedish population register. Death certificates from long-term SAH survivors and causes of death in the general population were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden. The prevalence of comorbidities at the time of SAH was compared with the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in the northern Sweden MONICA (Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) health survey. Analyses were stratified for age and sex.
In the SAH patients, the median year of SAH was 1992 and the median year of death was 2001. The MONICA survey in 1994 and the distribution of deaths in the general population in 2001 were used for comparison. Long-term SAH survivors had, compared to the general population, a significantly increased risk for death due to cerebrovascular disease (P
Maternal intrapartum fever (MF) is associated with neonatal sequelae, and women in labour who receive epidural analgesia (EA) are more likely to develop hyperthermia. The aims of this study were to investigate if EA and/or a diagnosis of MF were associated to adverse neonatal outcomes at a population level.
Population-based register study with data from the Swedish Birth Register and the Swedish National Patient Register, including all nulliparae (n=294,329) with singleton pregnancies who gave birth at term in Sweden 1999-2008. Neonatal outcomes analysed were Apgar score (AS)