To assess whether age-related incidence of cervical cancer supports two aetiological components and to assess trends in these components due to risk factors and to organised screening in Finland.
Population-based register study.
Finnish Cancer Registry.
Cervical cancer cases and female population in Finland in 1953-2012.
Cervical cancer incidence was estimated using Poisson regression where age-specific incidence consists of two (early-age and late-age) normally distributed components.
Accumulated net risks (incidences) and numbers of cancer cases attributed to each age-related component by calendar time.
The accumulated cervical cancer incidence in 2008-2012 was only 30% of that in 1953-1962, before the screening started. The fit of the observed age-specific rates and the rates based on the two-component model was good. In 1953-62, the accumulated net risk ratio (RR; early-age versus late-age) was 0.42 (95% CI 0.29-0.61). The early-age component disappeared in 1973-77 (RR 0.00; 95% CI 0.00-0.08). Thereafter, the risk for the early-age component increased, whereas the risk for the late-age component decreased, and in 2008-2012 the RR was 0.55 (95% CI 0.24-0.89).
In Finland, cervical cancer incidence has two age-related components which are likely to indicate differences in risk factors of each component. The trend in risk of both components followed the effects of organised screening. Furthermore, the risk related to the early-age component followed changes in risk factors, such as oncogenic HPV infections and other sexually transmitted diseases and smoking habits.
Cervical cancer incidence has two age-related components which are likely to have differencies in their aetiology.
It is not clear whether screening for breast cancer works as public health policy and whether early indicators of effect predict an ultimate reduction in mortality. The malignant potentials of 248 breast cancers detected by the screening service in Finland were compared with those of 490 control cancers diagnosed before the screening service was established. Aggressiveness was assessed by DNA flow cytometry and clinical status by cancer size and node involvement. After the first screening round, the results of DNA flow cytometry were the same in cancers diagnosed by screening and in controls; these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the biological aggressiveness of breast cancer remains constant as the cancer progresses. The proportion of patients with node-negative and small T1 cancers after the first screening was higher among the screened population than among controls, indicating earliness of diagnosis among those screened. Cancers diagnosed in the first round had a low malignant potential, as indicated by the DNA flow-cytometry and by clinical stage. Lower aggressiveness of cancers found by screening than of control cancers would indicate overdiagnosis or length-biased sampling, but not earliness of diagnosis. Screening with mammography is practised as a public-health policy in Finland. The results predict that the mortality reduction found in randomised trials can be repeated with a screening service.
The aim of the study was to find out if persons with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (arterial disease or hypertension) have additional risk of varicose veins (VV) compared with those without arterial disease (AD) or hypertension.
We studied, using a validated questionnaire, the prevalence and incidence of VVs in those with and without CVD in a population of 4903 including 40-, 50- and 60-year-old men and women in Tampere, Finland. During the five years of follow-up, we had a special interest on the appearance of new VVs in those without VVs at entry (n = 3065).
We found a higher prevalence of VVs in persons with CVD than in those without CVD (with sex and age adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.3 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.1-1.5]). The prevalence of VVs was higher in persons with AD (OR 1.7 [CI 1.4-2.2]), but not in persons with hypertension (OR 1.1 [CI 0.9-1.2]) than in those who were free of AD or hypertension, respectively. Subjects with AD had higher incidence of VVs (incidence odds ratio, IOR 1.4 [CI 0.8-2.7]) than subjects without AD and the effect was statistically significant in women (IOR 2.2 [CI 1.1-4.5]). Also the incidence of VVs was more affected by AD than by hypertension (IOR 1.1 [CI 0.7-1.8]).
There seems to exist a relatively strong additional risk of VVs in persons with AD and practically none in those with hypertension compared to those without.
Clinical observations indicate that many non-urological diseases seem to be associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This has also been shown in studies usually concerning single diseases. This study investigated the impact of non-urological diseases on LUTS in the general population.
A questionnaire on LUTS and medical history was mailed to all 50-, 60- and 70 year-old men in Tampere and in 11 municipalities in the same county, in total 3143 subjects. Day-time frequency, nocturia, urge, urge incontinence, hesitancy and incomplete emptying were used to form an index for LUTS. The men were asked to report any disease that they had. The number of the following diseases reported by the participants was large enough for statistical analysis: lower back pain, hypertension, arthritis, heart disease, pulmonary disease, diabetes, constipation. stroke, transient ischaemic attack, cancer (other than prostate or bladder), neurological disease, inguinal hernia, rheumatoid arthritis and faecal incontinence. The association between LUTS and non-urological diseases was estimated by logistic regression as a prevalence odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
In the multivariate analysis a significant association was found between LUTS and the following diseases: faecal incontinence (OR 4.5, CI 2 .3-9.1), neurological disease (OR 2.4, CI 1.3-4.4), constipation (OR 2.3, CI 1.5-3.3) and arthritis (OR 1.5, CI 1.2-2.0).
According to this population-based study LUTS is an important part of the symptomatology of faecal incontinence, neurological disease, constipation and arthritis. Thus, the patients with these diseases and presenting with LUTS require careful investigation, at least in the cases in which the primary therapy of LUTS has failed.
551 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer in Tampere University Hospital district, Finland between 1977 and 1980. The number of follow-up visits during the first 5 years was 8248. The biological, physical, mental and social dimensions of breast cancer were measured by death, recurrence of disease, Karnofsky score, physical or mental symptoms, and sick leave. The prevalence rates of an event and the incidence rates of the appearance or disappearance of an event were used to determine the indicators for these different dimensions of breast cancer. The study was based on hospital case notes. Data on death, recurrence, sick leave and Karnofsky score were well recorded, but physical or mental symptoms were recorded infrequently. There was a 4-fold difference between the highest and lowest prevalence for the different dimensions, but the trends were similar by follow-up time. The variation was also large for the incidence rates but the trends differed with length of follow-up time. The biological, physical, mental and social consequences of breast cancer differ in magnitude and have different trends over time, indicating that breast cancer is a different disease depending on the dimension and on the indicator under consideration.
Two nationwide registers, the Finnish Cancer Registry and a register of persons entitled to free drugs for hypertension, were linked in a case-control study of the association of breast cancer and use of rauwolfia. Cases were all hypertensive patients in whom breast cancer was diagnosed in 1973. To test the association specifically with rauwolfia, controls were hypertensive women matched with the cases for age and geographic area and approximately matched for duration of treatment for hypertension. There were 109 case-control pairs. Use of any physician-prescribed drugs during the year prior to diagnosis of breast cancer was ascertained from original prescriptions. In the first set of analyses the patients were classified according to the drug used during most days of the year ("main antihypertensive agent"). In the second set a person qualified as a user of the respective drug regardless of the amount taken. The relative risks in the use of rauwolfia, methyldopa, another synthetic antihypertensive or a diuretic as main antihypertensive agent all ranged between 0.90 and 1.11. The results based on use of a drug in any amount were similar. Next, pairs in which duration of treatment for hypertension was different for cases and controls were excluded. The relative risk associated with use of rauwolfia as main antihypertensive agent then increased from 1.00 to 1.30 and the risk associated with use of any amount of rauwolfia from 1.16 to 2.14. Simultaneously, the relative risk in the use of digitalis was raised from 1.33 to 2.67 and of nitroglycerin from 1.00 to 1.71. Cases also used more types of antihypertensive agents simultaneously than controls. There was no association between rauwolfia-use and breast cancer in analyses limited to pairs in which neither case nor control used digitalis. Thus, there was not a consistent drug-specific association between rauwolfia-use and breast cancer in hypertensive patients. An underlying association of hypertension, heart disease or its treatment (digitalis) and breast cancer may have confounded some of the results of this and earlier studies. In conclusion, it is unlikely that use of rauwolfia increases the risk of breast cancer.
Correlation analysis was performed on breast cancer incidence and risk factors in geographical areas of Finland. Breast cancer risk is associated with fertility and taxable income but not with the size of the woman. Trends in risk factors indicate that the rapid increase in the incidence of breast cancer is likely to continue. It is concluded that factors which are reflected by the standard of living and fertility might act independently and not through the nutritional status, for which the size of the woman is an operational indicator.
A nationwide mammographic screening for breast cancer was started in Finland in 1987. During the first 2 years of the organised screening programme, 126,000 women were invited. Most of them (103,000) belonged to the birth year cohort in the 50-59 years' age groups. Among the 112,000 screenees, 418 cancers (0.4%) were found. Specificity of the test was about 96%. The screening prevalence was 2.4 times the annual incidence and a minimum estimate for the detection rate among those invited was 1.6 times that among those not invited. These estimates indicate a relatively low test and programme sensitivity. The final effectiveness of a public health policy cannot be predicted on the basis of limited preventive trials, and there is need to evaluate also a public health policy by experimental means.
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