The ß(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is an important regulator of airway smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that three functional polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene (Thr164Ile, Gly16Arg and Gln27Glu) are associated with reduced lung function, asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We first genotyped 8,971 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for all three polymorphisms. To validate our findings, we genotyped an additional 53,777 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study for the Thr164Ile polymorphism. We identified 60,910 Thr164Ile noncarriers, 1,822 heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, the Thr164Ile genotype was associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) % predicted (trend p = 0.01) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) (p = 0.001): Thr164Ile heterozygotes had 3% and 2% reduced FEV(1) % pred and FEV(1)/FVC, respectively, compared with noncarriers. The odds ratio for COPD in Thr164Ile heterozygotes was 1.46 (95% CI 1.05-2.02). In the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Thr164 genotype associated with reduced FEV(1) % pred (p = 0.04) and FEV(1)/FVC (p
The ß(2) -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is located on smooth muscle cells and is an important regulator of smooth muscle tone. The Thr164Ile polymorphism (rs1800888) in the ADRB2 gene is rare but has profound functional consequences on receptor function and could cause lifelong elevated smooth muscle tone. We tested the hypothesis that Thr164Ile is associated with increased blood pressure, increased frequency of hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
A total of 66 750 individuals from two large Danish general population studies were genotyped, and 1943 Thr164Ile heterozygotes and 16 homozygotes were identified.
Thr164Ile genotype was associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women (trend: P = 0.04 and 0.02): systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 5% and 2%, respectively, in female homozygotes compared with female noncarriers. All female Thr164Ile homozygotes had hypertension compared with 58% of female heterozygotes and 54% of female noncarriers (chi-square: P = 0.001). Female Thr164Ile homozygotes and heterozygotes had odds ratios for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) of 2.93 (0.56-15.5) and 1.28 (1.03-1.61), respectively, compared with female noncarriers (trend: P = 0.007). These differences were not observed in men. Furthermore, Gly16Arg (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714) in the ADRB2 gene were not associated with blood pressure, hypertension or CVD either in the population overall or in women and men separately.
ADRB2 Thr164Ile is associated with increased blood pressure, increased frequency of hypertension and increased risk of IHD amongst women in the general population. These findings, particularly for homozygotes, are novel.
Testes ascending from the normal scrotal position to an undescended position is common, but not well known. The case notes of 37 boys who underwent orchidopexy between 1980 and 1994 at Nordfjordeid Hospital, Norway, were collected. None of the boys had previously undergone inguinal surgery. All patients underwent testicular examination at the time of birth. 23 boys (62%) had normally descended testes at birth but subsequently developed maldescens. According to these figures, testicular ascent is far more common than previously recorded. It is of major importance that the testicular position be examined repeatedly until the age of seven years.
Earlier research has shown a valence dependent encoding asymmetry of emotional words (e.g., Pratto & John, 1991; White, 1996; Stenberg, Wiking & Dahl, 1998). To further study this asymmetry, two word detection experiments were performed based on the following hypothesis: when there is a more thoroughly processing of the valence, in this case a valence categorisation, there will be, in a subsequent task, prolonged latencies for negative words, compared to positive words. The result gave significantly prolonged response latencies for negative words compared to positive ones in the subsequent detection task when using an affective orienting task, something not found using a non-affective orienting task. The results support the Mobilization-Minimization hypothesis (Taylor, 1991), according to which negative events and stimuli occupy more cognitive resources, but with some limitation: the affective asymmetry, with prolonged latencies for negative words, occurs only when there is a deepened encoding of the affective component of the words.
In a Finnish Multicentre Study, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured in 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-old children (N = 3,596). Height and weight percentiles superimposed on the current Finnish growth charts were above the standards in 6-15-year-old boys and 3-12-year-old girls. Triceps skinfold thickness percentiles (10% and 90%) appeared to be closest to British values and below American values. Weight, body mass index (BMI) and skinfold thicknesses showed good intercorrelations (up to .90) except in young boys. Height had a low positive correlation with BMI (.28 to .36) and with skinfold thickness (.23 to .36) in the age groups 6-12 years. BMI and subscapular skinfold seem to be useful obesity indicators. No consistent correlations were seen between physical variables and serum LDL- or total cholesterol and apoprotein B concentrations. There was a slight negative correlation between the physical variables and serum HDL-cholesterol. Apoprotein A1 correlated negatively to all obesity indicators in 12-year-old girls. Serum triglycerides showed slight positive correlation to physical variables. BMI and skinfolds had a low to moderate correlation with insulin (.21-.51) mainly in the three oldest age groups. On the ground of BMI and skinfold measurements we have reason to believe that the prevalence of obesity at 3-18 years of age is similar in Finland as in other countries in Europe.
In connection with the Finnish Multicentre Study on the precursors of atherosclerosis in 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 15- and 18-year-old children and adolescents, blood pressure was measured in 3,596 subjects in the five university hospital areas. Blood pressure was measured with an ultrasound device (Arteriosonde 1020, Roche) in the 3-year-old children, and an ordinary mercury sphygmomanometer was used in the rest of the subjects. The systolic and diastolic values increased with age as has been shown earlier. There were no significant differences in the values between boys and girls except that the 15- and 18-year-old boys had values a little higher than girls of the same age. Weight and height correlated well to both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Physical maturation also correlated to blood pressure.
A multicentre study on atherosclerosis precursors in Finnish children and adolescents was carried out in five urban and 12 rural areas in the autumn of 1980 and spring of 1981. Serum lipids, i.e. cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were determined and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated in 630 newborns and 3,596 children aged 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 years. In the newborns the mean serum TC concentration was 1.50 mmol/l, and the ratio of HDL-C to TC was 0.44. Newborn boys had lower mean TC, HDL-C and LDL-C values than the girls. In 3 to 18-year-old children the mean TC, LDL-C and HDL-C concentrations were 4.83 mmol/l, 3.09 mmol/l and 1.38 mmol/l, respectively. During puberty, TC mean values decreased, more so in boys. The serum levels of HDL-C also decreased, especially in boys, and after passing puberty boys had lower mean HDL-C levels than girls (1.26 vs. 1.39 mmol/l, p less than 0.001). The HDL-C/TC ratio was similar in all age groups (0.29). The mean TG value increased with age, being 0.88 mmol/l at the age of 18 yr. During sexual maturation, TG levels increased, more clearly in boys. There were no regional differences in serum lipid concentrations in the newborns, but in 3- to 18-year-old children the mean TC, LDL-C and TG values were lower in western than in eastern Finland. Mean TC and LDL-C values were lower in urban than in rural areas, but there was no difference in TG concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Fatty acid compositions of serum cholesteryl esters (CE) were analysed with gas chromatography from a total of 1,348 Finnish children. The study was a part of a comprehensive survey of atherosclerosis precursors among children, and included 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-old children and adolescents from five urban and twelve rural communities in Finland. In all age groups and both sexes, the mean percentages of linoleate (CE-18:2) were lower and those of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids higher in eastern rural areas than elsewhere. Eastern rural children also had significantly higher proportions of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in their serum CE's. The percentage of serum CE-18:2 parallels the P/S values obtained by a dietary survey from the same populations. The reason for higher percentages of the omega 3 fatty acids in rural communities cannot be explained by diet, and remains unclear.
In the Finnish Multicentre Study of the risk factors of coronary heart disease serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI) was measured in 3,486 children and adolescents aged 3-18 years. Serum IRI increased with age till the age of 15 years in both sexes. The increase in serum IRI levelled off with the progression of pubertal development. Serum IRI levels were higher in girls than in boys from the age of 6 years onwards. Comparison of serum IRI gave identical results from eastern and western parts of the country. Serum IRI correlated positively with skinfold thickness, weight, relative weight and body mass index in all age groups except the 3-year-old children.
The concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I and B were determined in 1,341 3- to 18-year-old children and adolescents from five urban and 12 rural communities. The analyses were made with radial immunodiffusion. The mean concentrations (+/- S.D.) of apo A-I and apo B were 152 +/- 25 and 94 +/- 22 mg/100 ml, respectively. 3-year-old children had the highest apo B levels which then decreased with advancing age in both sexes. Boys tended to have lower levels of apo B than girls. Apo A-I concentration was significantly higher in the 9- and 12-year-old boys than in the other age groups but showed no age-bound trend in girls. The apo A-I to apo B ratio increased with age in both sexes. The concentration of apo A-I was significantly lower, and that of apo B higher, in children living in eastern Finland in comparison with those from the western part of the country. This difference and a higher HDL-cholesterol to apo A-I ratio in both sexes in eastern Finland may be associated with the regional differences in the prevalence of coronary heart disease in this country.