Earlier research has shown a valence dependent encoding asymmetry of emotional words (e.g., Pratto & John, 1991; White, 1996; Stenberg, Wiking & Dahl, 1998). To further study this asymmetry, two word detection experiments were performed based on the following hypothesis: when there is a more thoroughly processing of the valence, in this case a valence categorisation, there will be, in a subsequent task, prolonged latencies for negative words, compared to positive words. The result gave significantly prolonged response latencies for negative words compared to positive ones in the subsequent detection task when using an affective orienting task, something not found using a non-affective orienting task. The results support the Mobilization-Minimization hypothesis (Taylor, 1991), according to which negative events and stimuli occupy more cognitive resources, but with some limitation: the affective asymmetry, with prolonged latencies for negative words, occurs only when there is a deepened encoding of the affective component of the words.
The aim of this study was to analyse early feeding problems. Fifty infants, between the ages of 3 and 12 months, were reported by the Child Health Centre (CHC) nurse and the parents to have some form of feeding problem, which had been present for at least one month. Data were collected by a visit to the infant's home, from medical records and by interviewing the CHC nurse. Three main problem categories were distinguished: Refusal to eat (28 infants), colic (9 infants) and vomiting (8 infants). The problems had often begun at an early age and had persisted for a long time (mean age at onset 4.3 months, mean duration 4.5 months). Eight of the infants had significant medical disorders, which in seven of them explained the feeding problems. In 23 infants the weight increase had been poor since the commencement of the problems. The CHC nurses considered most of the problems troublesome, difficult to treat and uncommon.
A survey of 482 lifeguards and Water Safety Instructors revealed that at least one-half had performed body contact swimming rescues (BCRs). Over two-thirds of these BCRs occurred when the lifesaver was relatively inexperienced in actual water rescues of any kind although virtually all rescuers had received formal lifesaving training. The victim tried to grasp the rescuer in 26 per cent of the BCRs which took place in swimming pools and 39 per cent of those occurring in lakes. Most of these attempts were made during the approach and were predominantly from the front, around the rescuer's head and neck or wrists and arms. Since the majority of victims were younger and smaller than their rescuers and got into difficulty less than 3 m from safety, only a small proportion of the grasps were perceived as endangering the lifesaver. Consequently, the victim was often permitted to retain the hold while being rescued. Grasps which were reported to be threatening tended to be applied by individuals of equal or larger physical size than the rescuer and usually occurred at distances exceeding 3 m from safety.
Cites: IMJ Ill Med J. 1965 May;127:577-8114291540
Cites: Med J Aust. 1977 Jan 29;1(5):130-3846422
Cites: Med J Aust. 1972 Nov 18;2(21):1183-74118516
Cites: Public Health Rep. 1967 Jul;82(7):587-6004961430
Cites: Hawaii Med J. 1973 Mar-Apr;32(2):92-54707659
Cites: Med J Aust. 1966 Dec 31;2(27):1257-615957600
Cites: Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1968 Dec;58(12):2275-895749962
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1974 Apr;64(4):303-124818067
We tested the hypothesis that two well-characterised functional polymorphisms of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene (EPHX1), T113C and A139G, may influence susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. We genotyped participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n = 10,038) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (n = 37,022) for the T113C and A139G variants in the EPHX1 gene and measured lung function and recorded COPD hospitalisation and asthma and smoking history. Finally, we meta-analysed results from 19 studies including 7,489 COPD cases and 42,970 controls. The OR for spirometry-defined COPD or COPD hospitalisation did not differ from 1.0 for any of the EPHX1 genotypes or phenotypes overall, or in smokers or nonsmokers separately (p-value for trend 0.18-0.91). Likewise, EPHX1 genotypes or phenotypes did not associate with risk of asthma (p-value for trend 0.46-0.98). In meta-analysis, random effects OR for COPD in T113C heterozygotes and homozygotes versus non-carriers were 1.17 (0.99-1.38) and 1.38 (1.09-1.74), respectively. Corresponding values for A139G were 0.93 (0.83-1.05) and 0.89 (0.78-1.02). Our results indicate that genetically reduced microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity is not a major risk factor for COPD or asthma in the Danish population; however, meta-analysis cannot completely exclude a minor effect on COPD risk.
Our hospital's stroke rehabilitation programme has been evaluated through a retrospective study of the record of 183 males (mean age 60 +/- 11 years) and 94 females (mean age 59 +/- 14 years) admitted in 1982/83. 87% of the patients had motoric impairments on admission; 45% had apraxia, 17% neglect, 38% aphasia and 57% other cognitive impairments. Most patients had both motoric and cognitive problems. 79% were able to ambulate freely at discharge as opposed to 55% on admission. 88% were independent in ADL when discharged; 67% on admission. The average length of stay (LOS) was shorter (p less than 0.005) for the males (57 +/- 32 days) than for the females (68 +/- 40 days). LOS was not significantly influenced by the patients' age. 81% of the patients were discharged to their homes. Significantly fewer patients with cognitive impairments were able to return to their homes after rehabilitation than in the case of those without such problems. The presence of aphasia did not significantly affect the rehabilitation outcome. It is concluded that the major obstacles for successful rehabilitation (i.e. back to the patient's home) are the cognitive impairments.
In the past high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support in the treatment of certain types of cancer, was centralized to two hospitals in Norway. Almost three years ago it was decided that the treatment should be offered by all five university hospitals. In the northernmost university hospital of Norway, TromsÃ¸, peripheral stem cells were harvested from 29 patients after successful mobilization with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). After high-dose chemotherapy, more than 2 x 10(6) CD34-positive stem cells/kg were transplanted in 24 patients and a sign of reconstitution of bone marrow function was achieved with mean time for neutrophils > 0.5x10(9)/l, 9.8 days and for platelets > 20x10(9)/l, 10.8 days. No treatment-related deaths have occurred. Transplantation of selected CD34-positive stem cells has been performed in one patient. Recovery was comparable to the recovery of patients who had undergone transplantation with unselected products. This indicates that even small centres performing as few as ten procedures per year may offer high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support safely and successfully.
BACKGROUND: Obstetrical complications, based on parental recall, have been reported to be associated with development of anorexia nervosa. We used prospectively collected data about pregnancy and perinatal factors to examine the subsequent development of anorexia nervosa. METHODS: This population-based, case-control study was nested in cohorts defined by all liveborn girls in Sweden from 1973 to 1984. From the Swedish Inpatient Register, 781 girls had been discharged from any hospital in Sweden with a main diagnosis of anorexia nervosa at the age of 10 to 21 years. For each case, 5 controls were randomly selected, individually matched by year and hospital of birth (n = 3905). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential risk factors. RESULTS: Increased risk of anorexia nervosa was found for girls with a cephalhematoma (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.1) and for very preterm birth (