The objective of the study is to examine attitudes towards aspects of donation treatment based on a national Swedish sample of gamete donors and couples undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART).
The present study was part of the Swedish study on gamete donation, a prospective longitudinal cohort study including all fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden. The sample comprised 164 oocyte donors, 89 sperm donors, 251 people treated with their own gametes (in vitro fertilisation (IVF)), 213 oocyte recipients and 487 sperm recipients. A study-specific questionnaire was used.
Attitudes vary widely between couples using their own gametes for IVF and those receiving or donating oocyte or sperm. The groups differed in their responses to most questions. Oocyte and sperm donors were more likely to agree with the statements "The donor should be informed if the donation results in a child" and "Offspring should receive some information about the donor during mature adolescence" than recipients of donated gametes and couples treated with their own gametes.
Donor recipients, IVF couples and donors expressed different attitudes towards openness and information when it came to gamete donation, and those differences seemed to depend on their current reproductive situation.
Cites: Med J Aust. 2003 Feb 3;178(3):127-912558484
Cites: Hum Reprod. 2013 Sep;28(9):2432-923756704
Cites: Hum Reprod. 2004 Oct;19(10):2415-915310730
Cites: Public Underst Sci. 2009 Jan;18(1):61-7719579535
Cites: Hum Reprod. 2009 Aug;24(8):1930-819414865
Cites: Ups J Med Sci. 2013 Aug;118(3):187-9523786323
To study parenting stress in lesbian parents and to compare that stress with heterosexual parents following in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or spontaneous pregnancies.
This survey took place during 2005-2008 and was part of the Swedish multicentre study on gamete donation. It comprised 131 lesbian parents, 83 heterosexual IVF parents, who used their own gametes, and 118 spontaneous pregnancy parents. The participants responded to the questionnaire when the child was between 12 and 36-months-old and parenting stress was measured by the Swedish Parenting Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ).
Lesbian parents experienced less parenting stress than heterosexual IVF parents when it came to the General Parenting Stress measure (p = 0.001) and the subareas of Incompetence (p
To assess self-perceived mental health in women treated with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) 20-23 years previously, while comparing them to a reference group, and to determine any differences in mental health between those who had given birth, those who had adopted a child, those who had given birth and adopted a child and those who remained childless.
A cross-sectional study.
A Center of Reproductive Medicine (RMC) at a Swedish University hospital.
520 women who had undergone at least one IVF cycle at the University Hospital in Link?ping between 1986 and 1989. 504 of 520 women (97%) were eligible for follow-up. While 34 women declined, 93 per cent (n=470) of the women agreed to participate. The reference group consisted of 150 women of the Swedish population included in a study that was used to validate the Symptom CheckList (SCL)-90.
Follow-up was conducted in 2008-2009. The SCL-90 was used to measure the women's self-perceived mental health and a questionnaire specific for this study was used to retain demographic information.
The SCL-90 assesses 9 primary dimensions; somatisation, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. There is also a global index of distress.
Women who had previously undergone IVF treatment were at increased risk of symptoms of depression (p=0.017), obsessive-compulsion (p=0.02) and somatisation (p=0.001) when compared to a reference group. In addition, the women who have remained childless are at increased risk of symptoms of depression (p=0.009) and phobic anxiety (p=0.017).
The majority of the women who have been treated with IVF 20-23 years previously appear to be in good mental health. However, women who remain childless and/or without partner after unsuccessful infertility treatment constitute a vulnerable group even later on in life.
Cites: BMJ. 2011;342:d22321345903
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Aug;201(2):160.e1-719560116
Cites: J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001 Sep;56(5):S311-2011522813
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, 581 85 Sweden.
The aim of this study was to investigate if individuals born with sub-optimal birth characteristics have reduced probability of reproducing in adulthood.
Using population-based registries, the authors included 522 216 males and 494 692 females born between 1973 and 1983 and examined their reproductive status as of 2006. Outcome measure was the hazard ratio (HR) of reproducing. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors.
Males and females born very premature displayed a reduced probability of reproducing [HR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.86 for males; HR = 0.81, CI: 0.75-0.88 for females]. Likewise for very low birthweight (HR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.95 for males; HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72-0.89 for females). Individuals born large for gestational age (LGA) displayed no significant changes. Males born small for gestational age (SGA) had a 9% lower reproductive rate (CI: 0.89-0.94) and that reduction increased as the individuals aged. Women born SGA tended to start reproducing at an earlier age.
The results suggest that being born with low birthweight, premature or SGA (for males) is associated with a reduced probability of reproducing as an adult. LGA shows no statistically significant relationship with future reproduction.
To compare psychiatric in- and outpatient care during the 5 years before first delivery in primiparae delivered by caesarean section on maternal request with all other primiparae women who had given birth during the same time period.
Prospective, population-based register study.
Women giving birth for the first time between 2002 and 2004 (n = 64 834).
Women giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request (n = 1009) were compared with all other women giving birth (n = 63 825). The exposure of interest was any psychiatric diagnosis according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ninth revision, ICD-9, 290-319; tenth revision, ICD-10, F00-F99) in The Swedish national patient register during the 5 years before first delivery.
Psychiatric diagnoses and delivery data.
The burden of psychiatric illnesses was significantly higher in women giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request (10 versus 3.5%, P
To compare sociodemographics, parity and mode of delivery between women diagnosed with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia (LPV) to women without a diagnosis before first pregnancy.
Retrospective, population-based register study.
All women born in Sweden 1973-83 who gave birth for the first time or remained nulliparous during the years 2001-09.
Nationally linked registries were used to identify the study population. Women diagnosed with vaginismus or LPV were compared to all other women. Odds ratios for parity and mode of delivery were calculated using multinominal regression analysis and logistic regression.
Parity and mode of delivery.
Women with vaginismus/LPV were more likely to be unmarried (P = 0.001), unemployed (P = 0.012), have a higher educational level (P
Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden.
To study the risk for congenital anomalies in the first child of women after bariatric surgery compared with all other women giving birth to their first child and divided by maternal body mass index (BMI) groups.
Prospective, population-based register study.
All firstborn children to women born 1973-83 were studied to determine if they had a congenital anomaly and a mother who had undergone bariatric surgery before pregnancy.
A total of 270,805 firstborns; of which 341 had mothers who had had bariatric surgery before delivery. We retrieved information on the women's marital or cohabitation status, smoking, BMI, diabetes and hypertension during pregnancy.
Of the firstborn children to mothers who had had bariatric surgery before pregnancy, 4.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.2-6.0) were malformed compared with 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5) of those whose mothers had not undergone bariatric surgery. The risk for congenital malformation in firstborn children increased with increasing maternal BMI. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for congenital malformation among children whose mothers' BMI ranged between 25 and 29 kg/m(2) was 1.09 (95% CI 1.03-1.15), whose mothers' BMI ranged between 30 and 34 kg/m(2) was 1.14 (1.05-1.24) and whose mothers' BMI was =35 kg/m(2) was 1.30 (95% CI 1.16-1.45) compared with those whose mothers had a normal BMI. Bariatric surgery before pregnancy did not have any effect on the odds ratio for having congenital malformation (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.91).
Preconception bariatric surgery does not seem to affect the risk for congenital malformations but a high to very high BMI does appear to increase the risk.
To examine whether women who undergo in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment are at greater risk of postnatal suicide or postnatal depression (PND) requiring psychiatric care, compared with women who conceive spontaneously.
Case-control study using data from national registers.
Sweden during the period 2003-2009.
Cases were 3532 primiparous women who had given birth following IVF treatment. An aged-matched control group of 8553 mothers was randomly selected from the medical birth register.
Logistic regression analyses were performed with PND as the outcome, and with known risk factors of PND as well as IVF/spontaneous birth as covariates.
Postnatal depression (PND), defined as diagnoses F32-F39 of the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), within 12 months of childbirth.
Initial analyses showed that PND was more common in the control group than in the IVF group (0.8 versus 0.4%; P = 0.04); however, these differences disappeared when confounding factors were controlled for. A history of any psychiatric illness (P = 0.000; odds ratio, OR = 25.5; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 11.7-55.5), any previous affective disorder (P = 0.000; OR = 26.0; 95% CI = 10.5-64.0), or specifically a personality disorder (P = 0.028; OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.2-12.7) increased the risk of PND. No woman in either group committed suicide during the first year after childbirth.
Whereas mothers who receive IVF treatment are not at increased risk of PND, the risk is increased among mothers with a history of mental illness.
A Swedish study on 3532 women showed that IVF treatment does not increase the risk of postnatal depression.
To investigate symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART), and to study the relationship of demographic data, pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans with symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Descriptive, a part of the prospective longitudinal 'Swedish study on gamete donation'.
All university clinics in Sweden performing gamete donation.
A consecutive sample of 214 lesbian couples requesting assisted reproduction, 165 of whom participated.
Participants individually completed three study-specific questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): time point 1 (T1), at commencement of ART; time point 2 (T2), approximately 2 months after treatment; and time point 3 (T3), 2-5 years after first treatment.
Anxiety and depression (HADS), pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans.
The vast majority of lesbian women undergoing assisted reproduction reported no symptoms of anxiety and depression at the three assessment points. A higher percentage of the treated women, compared with the partners, reported symptoms of anxiety at T2 (14% versus 5%, P = 0.011) and T3 (10% versus 4%, P = 0.018), as well as symptoms of depression at T2 (4% versus 0%, P = 0.03) and T3 (3% versus 0%, P = 0.035). The overall pregnancy outcome was high; almost three-quarters of lesbian couples gave birth 2-5 years after sperm donation treatments. Open-ended comments illustrated joy and satisfaction about family building.
Lesbian women in Sweden reported good psychological health before and after treatment with donated sperm.