BACKGROUND: The risk of contralateral breast cancer is increased twofold to fivefold for breast cancer patients. A registry-based cohort study in Denmark suggested that radiation treatment of the first breast cancer might increase the risk for contralateral breast cancer among 10-year survivors. PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess the role of radiation in the development of contralateral breast cancer. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 56,540 women in Denmark diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1943 through 1978. Case patients were 529 women who developed contralateral breast cancer 8 or more years after first diagnosis. Controls were women with breast cancer who did not develop contralateral breast cancer. One control was matched to each case patient on the basis of age, calendar year of initial breast cancer diagnosis, and survival time. Radiation dose to the contralateral breast was estimated for each patient on the basis of radiation measurements and abstracted treatment information. The anatomical position of each breast cancer was also abstracted from medical records. RESULTS: Radiotherapy had been administered to 82.4% of case patients and controls, and the mean radiation dose to the contralateral breast was estimated to be 2.51 Gy. Radiotherapy did not increase the overall risk of contralateral breast cancer (relative risk = 1.04; 95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.46), and there was no evidence that risk varied with radiation dose, time since exposure, or age at exposure. The second tumors in case patients were evenly distributed in the medial, lateral, and central portions of the breast, a finding that argues against a causal role of radiotherapy in tumorigenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of women in our series were perimenopausal or postmenopausal (53% total versus 38% premenopausal and 9% of unknown status) and received radiotherapy at an age when the breast tissue appears least susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of radiation. Based on a dose of 2.51 Gy and estimates of radiation risk from other studies, a relative risk of only 1.18 would have been expected for a population of women exposed at an average age of 51 years. Thus, our data provide additional evidence that there is little if any risk of radiation-induced breast cancer associated with exposure of breast tissue to low-dose radiation (e.g., from mammographic x rays or adjuvant radiotherapy) in later life.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the effects of perioperative blood transfusion on cancer related survival and infective complications after radical operations for colorectal cancer. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SETTING--District hospital in Sweden. SUBJECTS--217 patients who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion, out of 392 consecutive patients operated on for colorectal cancer between 1975 and 1979. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Morbidity and cancer related mortality depending on whether blood was transfused and, if so, how much. RESULTS--Dukes' stage (p
An intronic dinucleotide polymorphism in the IFN-gamma gene (IFNG) was used as a marker for testing association with multiple sclerosis (MS). Disease association was analyzed in case-control sets sampled from four geographically separate European populations (Germany, Northern Italy, Sardinia, and Sweden). Only in the Swedish was a weak disease association of the IFNG allele pattern found, mainly due to a higher frequency of IFNG allele I1 in MS patients. No evidence for association was found in the German or Northern Italian populations. These results contrast with the situation in Sardinia. We have recently reported transmission disequilibrium of IFNG allele I2 in Sardinian MS siblings not carrying the predisposing DRB1 *03 or *04 alleles (Ann. Neurol. 44, 841-842, 1998). Further analysis now shows that I2 is significantly more often transmitted to DRB1 *03-/*04- males, than to DRB1 *03-/*04- females. The odds ratio (OR) for IFNG-associated susceptibility to MS in the total Sardinian DRB1*03-/*04- group was 1.88 for I2 heterozygotes but amounted to 8.235 for I2 homozygotes, suggestive of a recessive mode of inheritance. Score test-based statistics pointed to an I2 allele dosage effect acting in susceptibility. Comparison of the IFNG allele frequencies in seven European populations (Northern Finnish, Southern Finnish, Swedish, Danish, German, Italian, and Sardinian) revealed a highly different distribution pattern. We introduced latitude as a score variable in order to test for trend in binomial proportions. This test statistic showed that for both most common alleles, I1 and I2 (compiled allele frequency about 85%), a significant opposite north-to-south trend is seen throughout Europe. This effect is primarily due to the extreme values found in the outlier populations of Finland and Sardinia. Our findings are discussed with respect to recent literature pertinent to the role of the IFNG chromosome region in autoimmune diseases.
In the literature there are discussions on the choice of outcome and the need for more longitudinal studies of musculoskeletal disorders. The general aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze musculoskeletal neck pain, in a group of young adults. Specific aims were to determine whether psychosocial factors, computer use, high work/study demands, and lifestyle are long-term or short-term factors for musculoskeletal neck pain, and whether these factors are important for developing or ongoing musculoskeletal neck pain.
Three regression models were used to analyze the different outcomes. Pain at present was analyzed with a marginal logistic model, for number of years with pain a Poisson regression model was used and for developing and ongoing pain a logistic model was used. Presented results are odds ratios and proportion ratios (logistic models) and rate ratios (Poisson model). The material consisted of web-based questionnaires answered by 1204 Swedish university students from a prospective cohort recruited in 2002.
Perceived stress was a risk factor for pain at present (PR = 1.6), for developing pain (PR = 1.7) and for number of years with pain (RR = 1.3). High work/study demands was associated with pain at present (PR = 1.6); and with number of years with pain when the demands negatively affect home life (RR = 1.3). Computer use pattern (number of times/week with a computer session > or = 4 h, without break) was a risk factor for developing pain (PR = 1.7), but also associated with pain at present (PR = 1.4) and number of years with pain (RR = 1.2). Among life style factors smoking (PR = 1.8) was found to be associated to pain at present. The difference between men and women in prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was confirmed in this study. It was smallest for the outcome ongoing pain (PR = 1.4) compared to pain at present (PR = 2.4) and developing pain (PR = 2.5).
By using different regression models different aspects of neck pain pattern could be addressed and the risk factors impact on pain pattern was identified. Short-term risk factors were perceived stress, high work/study demands and computer use pattern (break pattern). Those were also long-term risk factors. For developing pain perceived stress and computer use pattern were risk factors.
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Morphological, serological, DNA-homology and immunofluorescence studies of a rapidly fatal malignant lymphoma in a 25-year-old Sweden male revealed most of the characteristics of an EBV-associated Burkitt lymphoma. The various findings are discussed in relation to previously reported observations on endemic (African) and non-endemic Burkitt lymphomas.
While the increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma is well established, the relationship between exposure to asbestos dust and sinonasal cancer is less clear.
To study the risk of sinonasal cancer in relation to asbestos dust exposure.
A retrospective cohort study of construction workers, linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Participants were classified into four exposure groups; heavy, medium, low or very low exposure to asbestos, according to the incidence of pleural mesothelioma in their occupational group. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and relative risks (RRs) were analysed, adjusted for age and smoking habits. The risks of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were investigated separately.
Among the 280222 subjects, there was no increased risk of sinonasal cancer compared to the general population [SIR 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.03], or any dose-response relationship with exposure to asbestos. The highest RR was found in the low exposure group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69-2.28) and the lowest RR was found in the group with the highest exposure to asbestos (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.33-1.53). No significantly increased risk or dose-response association could be found for adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma when analysed separately.
This study did not find an increased risk of developing sinonasal cancer after asbestos exposure.
Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have independently found numerous loci at which common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modestly influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to test 11 loci, reported to be associated with an increased or decreased risk of colorectal cancer: 8q23.3 (rs16892766), 8q24.21 (rs6983267), 9p24 (rs719725), 10p14 (rs10795668), 11q23.1 (rs3802842), 14q22.2 (rs4444235), 15q13.3 (rs4779584), 16q22.1 (rs9929218), 18q21.1 (rs4939827), 19q13.1 (rs10411210) and 20p12.3 (rs961253), in a Swedish-based cohort.
The cohort was composed of 1786 cases and 1749 controls that were genotyped and analysed statistically. Genotype-phenotype analysis, for all 11 SNPs and sex, age of onset, family history of CRC and tumour location, was performed.
Of eleven loci, 5 showed statistically significant odds ratios similar to previously published findings: 8q23.3, 8q24.21, 10p14, 15q13.3 and 18q21.1. The remaining loci 11q23.1, 16q22.1, 19q13.1 and 20p12.3 showed weak trends but somehow similar to what was previously published. The loci 9p24 and 14q22.2 could not be confirmed. We show a higher number of risk alleles in affected individuals compared to controls. Four statistically significant genotype-phenotype associations were found; the G allele of rs6983267 was associated to older age, the G allele of rs1075668 was associated with a younger age and sporadic cases, and the T allele of rs10411210 was associated with younger age.
Our study, using a Swedish population, supports most genetic variants published in GWAS. More studies are needed to validate the genotype-phenotype correlations.
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