It has been hypothesized that visceral fat releases free fatty acids and adipokines and thereby exposes the liver to fat accumulation. The authors aimed to evaluate current epidemiologic evidence for an association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Clinical and epidemiologic studies with data on abdominal fat and liver fat content were reviewed. Studies using waist circumference to estimate abdominal fat mass suggested a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content. Studies using imaging methods suggested a direct association between intraabdominal fat and liver fat content, but not between subcutaneous abdominal fat and liver fat content. In conclusion, clinical and epidemiologic studies of abdominal fat and liver fat content suggest a direct association between abdominal fat and liver fat content which is probably accounted for by visceral fat. However, results from the included studies do not allow strong conclusions regarding the temporal sequence of events. Future longitudinal studies are recommended to obtain additional information on associations and mechanisms. Both abdominal fat depots and other body compartments of interest should be included to further investigate the association between specific fat depots and liver fat content. Biomarkers may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.
Whole grain intake has been associated with a small but significant lower body weight gain in observational studies, but there is limited knowledge about the associations with specific whole grain types. The objective was to investigate the association between whole grains, different sources of whole grains and biomarkers of whole grain intake (alkylresorcinols) in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference (WC) and body weight.
Cohort study of 57?053 participants with baseline information on whole grain intake from questionnaires (FFQ) and biomarkers of whole grain rye and wheat intake, plasma alkylresorcinols, for a subset. WC and body weight were measured at baseline and again at follow-up. The associations were estimated using multiple linear regression analyses and logistic regression.
For women, overall whole grain intake was not related to changes in WC or body weight. For men, total whole grain intake was associated with gains in WC (?WC per 25?g increment: 0.44?cm, 95% CI: 0.34?cm; 0.54?cm) and body weight (?weight per 25?g increment: 150?g, 95% CI: 78?g; 222?g), but the results changed to null or changed direction when adjusting for baseline anthropometry. For the different sources of whole grains, rye (women) and crispbread was significantly associated with gains in WC and body weight. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with reduced WC, but not body weight, for women (?WC per 50?nmol/l increment: -0.69?cm, 95% CI:-1.26?cm;-0.13?cm), but no association was found for men.
Overall, no strong relationship between whole grain intake, measured from questionnaires or using biomarkers was found in relation to changes in body weight and WC.
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):789-97 PMID 17023705
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):920-7 PMID 14594777
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2007;35(4):432-41 PMID 17786808
Follow-up studies have suggested that total intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) is a risk factor for gain in body weight and waist circumference (WC). However, in a cross-sectional study individual TFA isomers in adipose tissue had divergent associations with anthropometry. Our objective was to investigate the association between intake of TFA from ruminant dairy and meat products and subsequent changes in weight and WC. Furthermore, potential effect modification by sex, age, body mass index and WC at baseline was investigated.
Data on weight, WC, habitual diet and lifestyle were collected at baseline in a Danish cohort of 30,851 men and women aged 50-64 years. Follow-up information on weight and WC was collected 5 years after enrolment. The associations between intake of ruminant TFA (R-TFA) and changes in weight and WC were analysed using multiple linear regression with cubic spline modelling.
Intake of R-TFA, both absolute and energy-adjusted intake, was significantly associated with weight change. Inverse associations were observed at lower intakes with a levelling-off at intakes >1.2?g/day and 0.4 energy percentage (E %). Absolute, but not energy-adjusted, intake of R-TFA was significantly associated with WC change. An inverse association was observed at lower intakes with a plateau above an intake of 1.2?g/day.
The present study suggests that intake of R-TFA is weakly inversely associated with changes in weight, whereas no substantial association with changes in WC was found.