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Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207273
Source
Eur Respir J. 1997 Oct;10(10):2384-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1997
Author
M S Jaakkola
J J Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki.
Source
Eur Respir J. 1997 Oct;10(10):2384-97
Date
Oct-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - analysis
Clinical Trials as Topic
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Finland
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Interviews as Topic - methods
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
We present a theoretical framework for assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and review current methods in order to provide guidelines for different types of studies. Exposure assessment should include both a quantitative dimension and consideration of time-specificity of exposure. The ultimate aim is to measure the concentrations of ETS encountered by an individual for different time periods in various microenvironments. The first step is to identify an indicator of ETS. Personal monitoring of air nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSPs) are the most direct assessment methods. Indirect assessment methods include stationary measurements of tobacco smoke constituents in different microenvironments and/or questionnaire-derived information, modelled with time-activity information. Biomarkers, such as nicotine and/or cotinine in body fluids or hair, can be used as surrogate measures of dose, although they are usually affected by individual processes in the body after exposure. The best approach to assess ETS exposure will depend on the aim of the study, the health outcome, and the resources. Personal monitoring of nicotine or RSPs is the best method in studies of short-term health effects with small study samples. Stationary measurements of indoor air nicotine or RSPs are suitable for overall monitoring of ETS in different microenvironments over time. Questionnaires and interviews are suitable when studying health outcomes with a long latency period and rare diseases requiring large study populations. Cotinine in body fluids and nicotine concentration in hair can be used to assess cumulative exposure over days or months, respectively. A combination of different methods is often the best approach.
PubMed ID
9387970 View in PubMed
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Effect of passive smoking on the development of respiratory symptoms in young adults: an 8-year longitudinal study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212091
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 1996 May;49(5):581-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1996
Author
M S Jaakkola
J J Jaakkola
M R Becklake
P. Ernst
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
J Clin Epidemiol. 1996 May;49(5):581-6
Date
May-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Lung Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
The evidence of an association between passive smoking and occurrence of respiratory symptoms is relatively strong in children, whereas studies conducted in adult populations have provided inconsistent results. The objective of the present study was to examine the relations between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and development of respiratory symptoms in young adults during a study period of 8 years, with emphasis on the evaluation of potential dose-response pattern of the relations. The study population consisted of 117 "never smokers," who were 15 to 40 years of age at the time of initial examination, when they answered a standardized questionnaire on respiratory health, and who were reexamined 8 years later. ETS exposure at home and at work during the study period was recorded at the 8-year examination with a structured questionnaire. The symptoms studied as outcomes included wheezing, dyspnea, cough, and phlegm production. The relations between ETS exposure and development of respiratory symptoms were studied in multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, atopy, and the presence of other respiratory symptoms. Cumulative incidences of the respiratory symptoms, except of phlegm production, were consistently greater among subjects exposed to ETS compared with the reference group. A significant dose-related increase in the risk of developing dyspnea was observed in relation to ETS exposure, with an OR of 2.37 for an average exposure of 10 cigarettes/day (95% confidence interval, 1.25-4.51). The risk of developing other respiratory symptoms, apart from phlegm, was also related to ETS exposure, but these relations did not achieve statistical significance. The results provide evidence of adverse respiratory effects of ETS exposure in the home and office work environments in young adults. These findings emphasize the need for effective measures in the prevention of involuntary smoking during young adulthood.
PubMed ID
8636732 View in PubMed
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Immunoglobulin G antibodies against indoor dampness-related microbes and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189467
Source
Clin Exp Immunol. 2002 Jul;129(1):107-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2002
Author
M S Jaakkola
S. Laitinen
R. Piipari
J. Uitti
H. Nordman
A-M Haapala
J J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. Maritta.Jaakkola@occuphealth.fi
Source
Clin Exp Immunol. 2002 Jul;129(1):107-12
Date
Jul-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Allergens - adverse effects - immunology
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood - immunology
Antibodies, Fungal - blood - immunology
Antibody Specificity
Aspergillus - growth & development - immunology
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology - immunology
Basidiomycota - growth & development - immunology
Case-Control Studies
Cladosporium - growth & development - immunology
Environmental Microbiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Fusarium - growth & development - immunology
Housing
Humans
Humidity
Immunoglobulin G - blood - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Risk
Risk factors
Sick Building Syndrome - epidemiology
Spores, Bacterial
Spores, Fungal
Streptomyces - immunology
Trichoderma - growth & development - immunology
Abstract
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against microbes related to indoor dampness problems have been used as potential biomarkers of fungal exposure in clinical investigations. There is limited information on their relation to asthma. We conducted a population-based incident case-control study to assess the risk of asthma in relation to specific IgG antibodies to eight dampness-related microbes: Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Sporobolomyces salmonicolor, Stachybotrys chartarum, Streptomyces albus and Trichoderma citrinoviride. We recruited systematically all new cases of asthma during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls from a source population of adults 21-63 years of age living in the Pirkanmaa Hospital District, South Finland. The clinically diagnosed case series consisted of 521 adults with newly diagnosed asthma and the control series of 932 controls selected randomly from the source population. IgG antibodies were analysed with ELISA. An increased risk of developing asthma in adulthood was significantly related to IgG antibodies to T. citrinoviride, but not to the other moulds. There was no evidence of a dose-response relation between the IgG antibody level and the risk of asthma. T. citrinoviride may play a role in the aetiology of adult-onset asthma or serve as an indicator of other causal factors.
Notes
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Dec 1;150(11):1223-810588083
Cites: Inflamm Res. 1998;47 Suppl 1:S5-69561390
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Cites: Indoor Air. 2000 Sep;10(3):138-4510979195
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2002 May;110(5):543-712003761
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Cites: Clin Rev Allergy. 1985 Jul;3(3):319-293893675
Cites: Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1987;152:115-213499339
Cites: Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser. 1991;20:61S-73S1887269
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Apr 15;141(8):755-657709918
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Sep;152(3):1107-367663792
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996 Feb;22(1):5-138685674
Cites: J Clin Lab Immunol. 1995;46(3):137-428926621
Cites: Environ Res. 1998 Feb;76(2):85-939515063
Cites: FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000 Apr 15;185(2):129-3410754236
PubMed ID
12100029 View in PubMed
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Mortality from occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193590
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2001 Aug;43(8):687-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2001
Author
M M Nurminen
M S Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FIN-00250 Helsinki, Finland. Markku.Nurminen@occuphealth.fi
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2001 Aug;43(8):687-93
Date
Aug-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Cause of Death
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lung Diseases, Obstructive - etiology - mortality
Lung Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - etiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Risk
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Stroke - etiology - mortality
Time Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
This article aimed to estimate the mortality from exposure to passive smoking at work in Finland. The estimation used statistics on causes of death, exposure prevalences, and risk ratios from epidemiologic studies. The attributable fractions of cause-specific mortality from passive smoking at work were 2.8% for lung cancer, 1.1% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 4.5% for asthma, 3.4% for ischemic heart disease, and 9.4% for cerebrovascular stroke. Altogether, about 250 fatalities were estimated to have occurred in 1996. This is approximately 0.9% of the total mortality in the Finnish population in the relevant disease and age categories. The magnitude of mortality related to past occupational exposure to passive smoking is considerable. Preventive measures to reduce environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace will be a powerful means of reducing the high burden of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.
PubMed ID
11515251 View in PubMed
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Office equipment and supplies: a modern occupational health concern?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200088
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Dec 1;150(11):1223-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-1999
Author
M S Jaakkola
J J Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Dec 1;150(11):1223-8
Date
Dec-1-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Bronchitis - etiology
Computer Terminals
Confidence Intervals
Copying Processes
Cross-Sectional Studies
Education
Equipment and Supplies
Finland
Humans
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - etiology
Occupational Exposure
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Respiration Disorders - etiology
Respiratory Tract Infections - etiology
Risk factors
Sick Building Syndrome - diagnosis - etiology
Time Factors
Ventilation
Abstract
The Helsinki Office Environment Study, a population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Finland in 1991 among 2,678 workers in 41 randomly selected office buildings. The aim was to evaluate the relations between work with office equipment and supplies and the occurrence of eye, nasopharyngeal, skin, and general symptoms (often denoted as sick building syndrome (SBS)), chronic respiratory symptoms, and respiratory infections. Work with self-copying paper was significantly related to weekly work-related eye, nasopharyngeal, and skin symptoms, headache and lethargy, as well as to the occurrence of wheezing, cough, mucus production, sinusitis, and acute bronchitis. Photocopying was related to nasal irritation, and video display terminal work to eye symptoms, headache, and lethargy.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Sep 15;152(6):593-410997550
PubMed ID
10588083 View in PubMed
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Respiratory symptoms in young adults should not be overlooked.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221793
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Feb;147(2):359-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1993
Author
M S Jaakkola
J J Jaakkola
P. Ernst
M R Becklake
Author Affiliation
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Feb;147(2):359-66
Date
Feb-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Quebec - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Respiratory Sounds - diagnosis - physiopathology
Respiratory Tract Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology - physiopathology
Spirometry - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between development of respiratory symptoms and the rate of change in ventilatory lung function in young adults during a study period of 8 yr. The study population consisted of 391 subjects who were 15 to 40 yr of age at initial examination, when they underwent spirometry and an interviewer-administered ATS-DLD-78-A questionnaire on respiratory health, and who were reexamined 8 yr later. The association between the development of symptoms and the rate of change in FEV1 over time (delta FEV1, ml/yr) was studied in a linear regression model that included the potential confounders and other determinants of the outcome. The presence of modification by such factors as smoking, childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, gender, or atopy was assessed by the significance of interaction terms between potential modifiers and incident symptoms. Subjects who developed wheezing and dyspnea and in whom a doctor diagnosed asthma had a significantly greater average annual change in FEV1 compared with those without respiratory symptoms or asthma (-12.3 ml/yr, SE 5.0; -16.2 ml/yr, SE 5.5; and -42.6 ml/yr, SE 11.5, respectively). When focusing on subjects without a diagnosis of asthma, the associations with appearance of wheezing and dyspnea remained significant. The associations were in general stronger in never smokers compared with smokers and were strongest in ex-smokers. The presence of atopy was a significant modifier, so that in subjects with atopy there was a stronger negative association between the onset of cough and asthma and delta FEV1 than in those without.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
8430959 View in PubMed
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Scoring CT/HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers: effects of patient's age, body mass index and common laboratory test results.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176536
Source
Eur Radiol. 2005 Feb;15(2):213-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
T. Vehmas
L. Kivisaari
M S Huuskonen
M S Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Department of Radiology, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250, Helsinki, Finland. tapio.vehmas@occuphealth.fi
Source
Eur Radiol. 2005 Feb;15(2):213-9
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Asbestosis - blood - epidemiology - pathology - radiography
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed - methods
Abstract
We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38-80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall thickness and bronchiectasis. Multivariate statistical analyses were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. Increasing age, blood haemoglobin value and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated positively with several HRCT signs. Increasing BMI was associated with a decrease in several signs, especially parenchymal bands, honeycombing, all kinds of emphysema and bronchiectasis. The latter finding might be due to the suboptimal image quality in obese individuals, which may cause suspicious findings to be overlooked. Background data, including patient's age and body constitution, should be considered when CT/HRCT images are interpreted.
PubMed ID
15662476 View in PubMed
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The short-term impact of national smoke-free workplace legislation on passive smoking and tobacco use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193439
Source
Am J Public Health. 2001 Sep;91(9):1416-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2001
Author
A. Heloma
M S Jaakkola
E. Kähkönen
K. Reijula
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki. ahel@occuphealth.fi
Source
Am J Public Health. 2001 Sep;91(9):1416-8
Date
Sep-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Services Research
Humans
Male
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Occupational health - legislation & jurisprudence
Prevalence
Program Evaluation
Questionnaires
Smoking - epidemiology - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Time Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Workplace - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
This study sought to evaluate the short-term impact of national smoke-free workplace legislation on employee exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work and on employee smoking habits.
We performed 2 cross-sectional studies in 9 medium-sized and large Finnish workplaces, before and after implementation of national smoke-free workplace legislation. We assessed tobacco smoke exposure via questionnaire and indoor air nicotine measurements.
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke declined considerably after the legislation was implemented. Tobacco consumption among smokers diminished. Nicotine concentrations fell significantly.
Legislation was more efficient than voluntary workplace-specific smoking restrictions in reducing passive smoking and cigarette consumption.
Notes
Cites: JAMA. 1998 Dec 9;280(22):1909-149851475
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Cites: Am J Ind Med. 2000 Feb;37(2):214-2010615102
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 1998 Feb;42(2):129-349559573
Cites: Circulation. 1992 Aug;86(2):699-7021638735
Cites: J Occup Environ Med. 1997 Nov;39(11):1111-49383722
Cites: Eur Respir J. 1997 Oct;10(10):2384-979387970
Cites: Can J Public Health. 1998 Jan-Feb;89(1):33-49524387
Erratum In: Am J Public Health 2001 Dec;91(12):1920
PubMed ID
11527773 View in PubMed
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Smoking during pregnancy in Finland: determinants and trends, 1987-1997.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195706
Source
Am J Public Health. 2001 Feb;91(2):284-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2001
Author
N. Jaakkola
M S Jaakkola
M. Gissler
J J Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. jouni.jaakkola@nhv.se
Source
Am J Public Health. 2001 Feb;91(2):284-6
Date
Feb-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Marital Status - statistics & numerical data
Occupations - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology - etiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Registries
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Smoking - epidemiology - trends
Abstract
This study examined determinants of and trends in smoking during pregnancy in Finland from 1987 through 1997.
A repeated cross-sectional investigation of 694,926 women was conducted.
The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy remained similar from 1987 through 1997 (at 15%). In 1997, prevalences of smoking were alarmingly high among young (37%), single (30%), and less educated (25%) women and among women living in northern (20%) and eastern (19%) Finland. These determinants were persistent over time, with the exception of an increase in regional differences.
Despite increasing knowledge of adverse effects, smoking during pregnancy has not declined in Finland over the past decade.
Notes
Cites: BMJ. 1998 Sep 12;317(7160):7289732341
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 1987;65(5):663-7373322602
PubMed ID
11211639 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.