The aim of the study was to analyse effects of various innovative forms of school education on the health status and functional abilities of children and adolescents. Enhanced academic loads are shown to be the most unfavourable factor of the school environment. The main consequences of excess teaching load are shortened motor and outdoor activities of the children, smaller duration of night sleep. Optimization of academic routine (alternation of studies and holidays), modular structure of school calendar might help to reduce fatigue during school hours. Hygienic estimates of different variants of specialized education are obtained. Scientifically sound hygienic requirements are proposed to be applied to the organization of academic activities in a new type of educational institutions, full-day schools.
Formation of computer skills + of pupils is one of the most acute tasks for school today. The relationship between the functional state of the central nervous system, visual analyser and efficiency of pupils with age, have been established. Motivation for work with the computer and quality of the computer video-terminal has been established. Questionnaires given to about 500 pupils have shown that the majority of pupils show an interest to working with computers: 82.5% of 13-14-year old and 70% of 16-17-year old adolescents. Efficiency of pupils becomes more stable with age. The highest number of astheno-neurotic tic symptoms and fatigue complaints are registered in pupils with a low interest to working with computers, as well as in pupils dealing with computers of low quality (of the type Personal Computer 0010). Duration of pupils' work with computers should be no longer than 30 minutes.
The hygienic evaluation of pedagogical technology for teaching under the active sensory-developing environment and the Intellect technology showed that their implementation caused a reduction in the fatiguing effect of an educational load, by optimizing the organization of a teaching process and enhancing the functional capacities of pupils.
The paper deals with impact of educational load in pupils at present general educational establishments on their health. The great total educational load in them was found to violate the schoolchildren's routine. This more frequently forms inadequate physiological responses, develops neurotic disorders. The incidence of chronic diseases is higher in children going to new-type schools. The findings provide evidence for some medical and organizational measures to promote schoolchildren's health.
For the time present becoming more common semiconductor sources of artificial lighting has become a more and more frequent practice. With the aim to study the impact of LEDs on the health of schoolchildren studies in experimental conditions (specially equipped classrooms) were performed. The comparative analysis of the state of vision, mental health and emotional state of pupils in primary, middle and high schools under fluorescent and LED lighting, meeting to the regulatory requirements, has revealed that the physiological cost of schooling in the use of LED units in classrooms is lower than in a traditional, fluorescent lighting.
Hygienic assessment has established that education, by using innovation procedures for school lesson scheduling, diminishes the weariness of a schooling load and optimizes the pupils' psychosomatic status and school routine.
Different variants of teaching organization at high school have been studied on the basis of a comparative analysis. The 10th-form pupils of specialized classes have been established to have a lower level of mental performance than those of the same age from general educational classes. This is associated with the drastic increase in a weekly summary educational load as compared with that in a ninth form, which was characteristic of the pupils of specialized classes; their educational load is increased by 8.5 hours whereas that is by 2.5 hours in those of educational classes. The adaptation of the pupils of specialized classes to new specialized educational conditions is completed by the 11th form, as suggested by the positive changes in their mental performance. The study of different models of specialized education organization has revealed that a multispecialized model that can individualize an academic process to a greater extent is hygienically most favorable. Recommendations have been developed for the hygienic optimization of an academic process at high school.
Physiological and hygienic studies under the conditions of a natural hygienic experiment were conducted to examine different variants of the organization of work of new types of general educational establishments--full-day schools. Over 580 pupils from 5 full-day schools were followed up. Organization of teaching children at full-day schools was found to mainly correspond to the age-related capabilities of pupils from primary and secondary classes. Of vital importance for maintenance of mental performance, good emotional and psychosomatic states are the organization of the intraschool environment, including a school plot, as well as the conditions for realization of additional education, motor activity of children, and recess. Health keeping in pupils from full-day schools is favored by the reduction in the duration of lessons to 35 minutes and day sleep for first-form children, the decrease in the number of pupils in a class, outdoor physical exercises in the middle of a school day (a primary school) and strolls after lessons, three meals a day, balanced additional education, medicopsychological accompaniment, optimization of studies and rest in children during a school year.
A methodical approach to the hygienic assessment of the educational environment in children's educational institutions was developed and tested for the objective determination of the level ofsanitary and epidemiological welfare and effective planning of preventive measures with bearing in mind environmental factors which have the most negative impact on children's health.