The aim of the study was to analyse effects of various innovative forms of school education on the health status and functional abilities of children and adolescents. Enhanced academic loads are shown to be the most unfavourable factor of the school environment. The main consequences of excess teaching load are shortened motor and outdoor activities of the children, smaller duration of night sleep. Optimization of academic routine (alternation of studies and holidays), modular structure of school calendar might help to reduce fatigue during school hours. Hygienic estimates of different variants of specialized education are obtained. Scientifically sound hygienic requirements are proposed to be applied to the organization of academic activities in a new type of educational institutions, full-day schools.
The hygienic evaluation of pedagogical technology for teaching under the active sensory-developing environment and the Intellect technology showed that their implementation caused a reduction in the fatiguing effect of an educational load, by optimizing the organization of a teaching process and enhancing the functional capacities of pupils.
The paper deals with impact of educational load in pupils at present general educational establishments on their health. The great total educational load in them was found to violate the schoolchildren's routine. This more frequently forms inadequate physiological responses, develops neurotic disorders. The incidence of chronic diseases is higher in children going to new-type schools. The findings provide evidence for some medical and organizational measures to promote schoolchildren's health.
Hygienic assessment has established that education, by using innovation procedures for school lesson scheduling, diminishes the weariness of a schooling load and optimizes the pupils' psychosomatic status and school routine.
Physiological and hygienic studies under the conditions of a natural hygienic experiment were conducted to examine different variants of the organization of work of new types of general educational establishments--full-day schools. Over 580 pupils from 5 full-day schools were followed up. Organization of teaching children at full-day schools was found to mainly correspond to the age-related capabilities of pupils from primary and secondary classes. Of vital importance for maintenance of mental performance, good emotional and psychosomatic states are the organization of the intraschool environment, including a school plot, as well as the conditions for realization of additional education, motor activity of children, and recess. Health keeping in pupils from full-day schools is favored by the reduction in the duration of lessons to 35 minutes and day sleep for first-form children, the decrease in the number of pupils in a class, outdoor physical exercises in the middle of a school day (a primary school) and strolls after lessons, three meals a day, balanced additional education, medicopsychological accompaniment, optimization of studies and rest in children during a school year.
In the article there are presented data of longitudinal study of the health of Moscow schoolchildren (426 children), followed throughout from the 1st to 9th class, inclusively. Students were annually clinically examined in the school. There was performed a comprehensive study of mental health and functional state of the organism in the process of education students in high school (over 2700 pupils of 5-9th classes). The health status of students was shown to deteriorate due to the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease, the rise in occupancy of the III-IV health groups, the decrease of the number of children referred to I and II health groups. Unfavorable trends in the health state among boys are more pronounced than in girls, while they are also characterized by lower functional capabilities of the CNS and lower resistance to the development of training fatigue. Relatively favorable stage of school ontogeny is characterized by period with reduced morbidity in children studying in 4th-6th classes. Deterioration in the health of students as a significant rate of the rise of chronic diseases morbidity is observed in 7-9th classes. Along with this, in the 7th and 9th classes there is revealed the deterioration of mental capacity and high frequency of the pronounced signs of fatigue among schoolchildren.