HLA-B27 is present throughout Eurasia but is virtually absent among the genetically unmixed native populations of South America, Australia, and among equatorial and southern African Bantus and Sans (Bushmen). It has a very high prevalence among the native peoples of the circumpolar arctic and subarctic regions of Eurasia and North America, and in some regions of Melanesia. Results of recent epidemiologic studies of spondyloarthropathies in populations with a relatively high prevalence of B27 are also reviewed.
A 2-year etiological survey of acute diarrhoea in children aged 0-35 months who were attending treatment facilities was carried out using a standardized protocol in five hospitals in China, India, Mexico, Myanmar, and Pakistan. A total of 3640 cases of diarrhoea and 3279 age- and sex-matched controls were studied; about 60% of the patients were aged less than 1 year and 60% were male. An enteric pathogen was detected in 68% of the cases and in 30% of the controls. In all the study centres, the pathogens most strongly associated with disease were rotavirus (16% of cases, 2% of controls), Shigella spp. (11% of cases, 1% of controls) and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (16% of cases, 5% of controls). Rotavirus was commonest among 6-11-month-olds, accounting for 20% of all cases in this age group; 71% of all rotavirus episodes occurred during the first year of life. Shigella spp. were commonest among those aged 12-23 months and 24-35 months, accounting for 22% and 27% of the cases, respectively. The proportion of cases that yielded no pathogen was inversely related to age, being highest (41%) among infants below 6 months of age and lowest (19%) among those aged 24-35 months. These results suggest that microbe-specific intervention strategies for the control of childhood diarrhoeal diseases in developing countries should focus on rotavirus, Shigella spp. and enterotoxigenic E. coli.
34 children aged 10-15 years in long-term remission of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were on combined rehabilitation for concomitant diseases. Adjuvant balneotherapy promoted improvement in the heart rate and decreased asymmetry of circulation. No side effects were registered.
We examined the distribution of non-B27 alleles of the HLA-B locus among B27+ patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), to detect any additional HLA-B locus allele(s) that may act in conjunction with B27 to increase susceptibility to AS. HLA-Bw60 (or B40 when the Bw60,61 split of B40 was not typed for) was shown to be increased among B27+ AS patients in each of 5 independent data sets. This increase was statistically significant in 4 of the 5 data sets studied, and the overall significance was P less than 0.00001. Susceptibility to AS in B27+ individuals was further increased by a factor of approximately 3 when Bw60 was also present. The distribution of HLA-A alleles on the B27-bearing haplotypes in AS patients was not significantly different from that in normal controls. On the other hand, the distribution of HLA-A alleles on Bw60-bearing haplotypes was significantly different from the distribution of A alleles on Bw60 haplotypes in the general population (P less than 0.0005). Bw60 was not increased in B27- patients with AS. A dominant mode of inheritance generally fits AS; however, our sib pair analysis indicates that the B27,Bw60 disease subgroup follows a more recessive mode of inheritance.
Ochrobactrum anthropi, previously known as CDC group Vd, is an aerobic, Gram-negative bacillus of low virulence that occasionally causes human infection. We describe a case of infective endocarditis with O. anthropi complicated by septic embolization. A review of all the literature reported cases of O. anthropi infection is presented and categorized into 'Central line related', 'Transplant related' and "Other pyogenic infections". Mortality appears to be related to the underlying disease state, rather than the organism.
This paper demonstrates the efficacy of prophylactic measures among the children of a perinatal risk group. The effectiveness of preventive measures was estimated based on the model developed in the Children's Healthcare Centre, Reutov, Moscow region. It is concluded that the introduction of the proposed program in the practical work of other children's health centres would promote the solution of the debatable problem pertaining to the choice of optimal measures for the observation and treatment of the children under the age of 5-6 years based at the children's healthcare centres.
Somatic p53 mutations are common in lung cancer. Active cigarette smoking is positively correlated with the total frequency of p53 mutations and G:C to T:A transversions on the nontranscribed (DNA coding) strand. Mutational hotspots within the p53 gene, e.g., codon 157, have been identified for tobacco-related lung cancer, whereas these same mutations are found rarely in other cancers. Such data implicate specific p53 mutations as molecular markers of smoking. Because limited data exist concerning the p53 mutation frequency and spectra in ex-smokers and nonsmokers, we have analyzed p53 and K-ras mutations in 126 lung cancers from a population-based case-control study of nonsmoking (n = 117) or ex-smoking (n = 9) women from Missouri with quantitative assessments of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Mutations in the p53 gene were found in lung cancers from lifetime nonsmokers (19%) and ex-smokers (67%; odds ratio, 9.08; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-39.98). All deletions were found in tumors from patients who were either ex-smokers or nonsmokers exposed to passive smoking. The G:C to A:T transitions (11 of 28; 39%) were the most frequent p53 mutations found and clustered in tumors from lifetime nonsmokers without passive smoke exposure. The incidence of K-ras codon 12 or 13 mutations was 11% (14 of 115 analyzed) with no difference between long-term ex-smokers and nonsmokers. These and other results indicate that p53 mutations occur more commonly in smokers and ex-smokers than in never-smokers. Such comparisons provide additional evidence of genetic damage caused by tobacco smoke during lung carcinogenesis.