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An estimation of Canada's public health physician workforce.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150463
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 May-Jun;100(3):199-203
Publication Type
Article
Author
Margaret L Russell
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1. mlrussel@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 May-Jun;100(3):199-203
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Certification
Civil Defense
Community Medicine - manpower
Data Collection
Disaster planning
Emergency Medicine - manpower
Health Manpower - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Occupational Medicine - manpower
Pediatrics - manpower
Physicians - supply & distribution
Public Health - education - manpower
Public Health Administration - manpower
Questionnaires
Abstract
Public health emergency planning includes a consideration of public health human resource requirements. We addressed the hypothetical question: How many public health physicians could Canada mobilize in the event of a public health emergency?
We used the 2004 National Physician Survey (NPS) to estimate the number of public health physicians in Canada. Using weighting to account for non-response, we estimated the numbers and population estimates of public health physicians who were active versus 'in reserve'. We explored the impact of using diverse definitions of public health physician based upon NPS questions on professional activity, self-reported degrees and certifications, and physician database classifications.
Of all Canadian physicians, an estimated 769 (1.3%) are qualified to practice public health by virtue of degrees and certifications relevant to public health, of whom 367 (48%) also report active 'community medicine/public health' practice. Even among Canada's 382 Community Medicine specialists, only 60% report active public health practice.
The estimation of the size of Canada's public health physician workforce is currently limited by the lack of a clear definition and appropriate monitoring. It appears that, even with a reserve public health physician workforce that would almost double its numbers, Canada's available workforce is only 40% of projected requirements. Public health emergency preparedness planning exercises should clearly delineate public health physician roles and needs, and action should be taken accordingly to enhance the numbers of Canadian public health physicians and their capacity to meet these requirements.
PubMed ID
19507722 View in PubMed
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Beverage consumption in low income, "milk-friendly" families.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150389
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(2):95-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
N Theresa Glanville
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS, Canada.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2009;70(2):95-8
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Beverages - economics - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Hunger
Infant
Male
Mental Recall
Milk - economics - statistics & numerical data
Poverty
Questionnaires
Abstract
Beverage consumption by poor, lone mother-led, "milk-friendly" families living in Atlantic Canada was characterized over a one-month income cycle.
Beverage intake and food security status were assessed weekly, using a 24-hour dietary recall and the Cornell-Radimer food insecurity questionnaire. Families were classified as "milk friendly" if total consumption of milk was 720 mL on a single day during the month. Beverage intake was assessed using t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc comparisons, and chi-square analysis.
Milk consumption by milk-friendly families (76; total sample, 129) was highest at the time of the month when they had the most money to spend. During all time intervals, mothers consumed the least amount of milk and children aged one to three years consumed the most. Mothers consumed carbonated beverages disproportionately, while children of all ages consumed more fruit juice/drink. Mothers' coffee consumption was profoundly increased when either they or their children were hungry.
The quality of beverage intake by members of low-income households fluctuates in accordance with financial resources available to purchase foods. Mothers' beverage intake is compromised by the degree of food insecurity the family experiences.
PubMed ID
19515273 View in PubMed
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Boundaries and overlap: Community medicine or public health doctors and primary care physicians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147414
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2009 Nov;55(11):1102-1103.e5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Margaret L Russell
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1. mlrussel@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2009 Nov;55(11):1102-1103.e5
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Community Medicine - organization & administration
Delivery of Health Care - organization & administration
Humans
Physicians, Family
Public Health - manpower
Questionnaires
Abstract
To explore the boundaries and overlap of practice profiles of primary care physicians (PCPs), including FPs and GPs, and community medicine specialists (CMs), particularly in the area of community-oriented clinical care.
Analysis of data from the 2004 National Physician Survey. Analyses included frequencies, cross-tabulations, and chi(2) statistics.
Canada.
Primary care physicians and CMs who responded to the 2004 National Physician Survey.
For PCPs and CMs, we compared main work and patient care settings, areas of professional activity, and credentials to practise public health or family medicine. Among CMs, we examined the most commonly treated conditions and services provided for evidence of community-oriented clinical care.
Data were available for 154 CMs and 11 041 PCPs. The most common work setting for CMs was government or public health agencies, while for PCPs it was offices, clinics, or community care settings, including community hospitals. Among CMs, 59.7% indicated that community medicine or public health practice was an area of professional activity and 13.0% indicated that they participated in primary care. The corresponding proportions for PCPs were 15.3% and 78.2%, respectively. Generally, CMs engaged in a mixture of individual-level and population-level practice activities, although the former was not distinguished by increased clinical prevention, health promotion, or disease prevention services. Of CMs who indicated that primary care was an area of professional activity, 55.0% had the relevant credentials, compared with only 1.9% of PCPs who conversely indicated that community medicine or public health was an area of professional activity.
In Canada CMs and PCPs have distinct practice profiles, despite some overlaps. Further role and practice profile refinement for both physician groups has implications for training, credentialing, and deployment within the health care system.
Notes
Cites: J Fam Pract. 1982 Sep;15(3):485-927108463
Cites: N Z Med J. 1994 Sep 28;107(986 Pt 2):388-4337936474
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2009 May-Jun;100(3):199-20319507722
Cites: Milbank Q. 2005;83(3):457-50216202000
Cites: Can J Cardiol. 2005 Nov;21(13):1157-6216308589
Cites: Can Fam Physician. 2005 May;51:640-2, 647-915934260
PubMed ID
19910598 View in PubMed
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The Chief Public Health Officer's report on health inequalities: what are the implications for public health practitioners and researchers?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147895
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):93-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sharon I Kirkpatrick
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. sharon.kirkpatrick@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Mar-Apr;100(2):93-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Canada
Health Services Research
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Public Health
Public Health Practice
United States
Abstract
The first annual report of the Chief Public Health Officer on the State of Public Health in Canada draws notable attention to health inequalities in Canada. This report provides a compelling presentation of our current health status and the uneven distribution of health across the population, noting persistent and sizeable gaps in life expectancy, infant mortality, self-reported health, prevalence of chronic diseases, and other health indicators between higher- and lower-income groups, as well as the extraordinary disadvantage experienced by Canada's Aboriginal peoples. However, the report falls short of offering a critical approach to addressing and reducing health inequalities. It fails to stimulate thinking about integrated strategies by profiling current responses that do little to address the underlying structural drivers of health inequalities and ignoring the population health framework's recognition of the complex interactions among the determinants of health. Despite its shortcomings, the report shines a light on major health inequalities in Canada, providing a foundation for further action. Public health workers in this country must build on this foundation, working together and with all sectors and levels of government to identify and implement integrated strategies to reduce health inequalities and inequities in Canada.
PubMed ID
19839281 View in PubMed
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Childhood vision screening in Canada: public health evidence and practice.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126945
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):40-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Silvina C Mema
Lynn McIntyre
Richard Musto
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. scmema@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):40-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amblyopia - prevention & control
Canada
Child, Preschool
Evidence-Based Medicine
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Vision Screening - methods - organization & administration
Abstract
Best practice guidelines recommend vision testing in children 3 to 5 years of age for the prevention of amblyopia; however, universal vision screening is controversial. In Canada, amblyopia screening can be the responsibility of physicians, optometrists, and/or Public Health. We review the evidence underlying preschool vision screening for amblyopia using an Evidence-based Public Health (EBPH) approach, and consider implications for the Public Health provision of universal screening programs for amblyopia in Canadian jurisdictions in light of present practices.
We searched the literature to address each major screening criterion (disease, test, treatment, program requirements) necessary to support preschool vision screening for amblyopia. We also reappraised papers cited in two systematic reviews related to the impact of vision screening. The Chief Medical Officer of Health of each province/territory was sent a short survey asking whether there currently was a Public Health preschool vision screening program in place and if so, for specifics about the program.
An EBPH approach to the literature with respect to the criteria for screening and available intervention studies support amblyopia screening by Public Health. There is a public health divide in amblyopia screening practice in Canada; while some provinces maintain organized programs, others have chosen to delegate the task to other professionals, without a concurrent surveillance function to monitor disparities in uptake.
Amblyopia deserves attention from Public Health. Efforts should be made to maintain existing programs, and provinces without organized screening programs should reconsider their role in the prevention of inequities with regard to preventable blindness in Canadian children.
PubMed ID
22338327 View in PubMed
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Children's feeding programs in Atlantic Canada: some Foucauldian theoretical concepts in action.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185237
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jul;57(2):313-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Jutta B Dayle
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 3C3. jutta.dayle@dal.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2003 Jul;57(2):313-25
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Child
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Female
Food Services - organization & administration
Humans
Hunger
Male
Models, organizational
Poverty
Power (Psychology)
Program Development
Voluntary Health Agencies - organization & administration
Abstract
Since 1989 the number of Canadian children depending on food banks has increased by more than 85%. To combat perceived hunger, breakfast and lunch programs have been initiated by localized volunteer efforts. This paper attempts to show the Foucauldian concepts of power, truths, space and time in action in feeding programs in Atlantic Canada. A potential 'relation of docility-utility' is imposed upon children by providers of feeding programs and ultimately the state. The 'power over life' or 'micro-physics of power' is accomplished through procedures that use food, rules, rewards, reinforcements, space, time, and truths. Children voluntarily subject themselves to this relation while reserving the power to resist through acts of defiance or by not attending at all. This ability to exercise one's agency allows for shifting power relations in the social dynamics of feeding programs. The potentially coercive nature of these relationships is embedded in the pleasurable environment generated by the feeding process.
PubMed ID
12765711 View in PubMed
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Chronic physical and mental health conditions among adults may increase vulnerability to household food insecurity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107674
Source
J Nutr. 2013 Nov;143(11):1785-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Valerie Tarasuk
Andrew Mitchell
Lindsay McLaren
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, and.
Source
J Nutr. 2013 Nov;143(11):1785-93
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Socioeconomic Factors
United States
Young Adult
Abstract
Analyses of cross-sectional population survey data in Canada and the United States have indicated that household food insecurity is associated with poorer self-rated health and multiple chronic conditions. The causal inference has been that household food insecurity contributes to poorer health, but there has been little consideration of how adults' health status may relate to households' vulnerability to food insecurity. Our objectives were to examine how the presence of an adult with one or more chronic physical or mental health conditions affects the odds of a household being food insecure and how the chronic ill-health of an adult within a food-insecure household affects the severity of that household's food insecurity. Using household- and respondent-level data available for 77,053 adults aged 18-64 y from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey, we applied logistic regression analyses, controlling for household sociodemographic characteristics, to examine the association between health and household food insecurity. Most chronic conditions increased the odds of household food insecurity independent of household sociodemographic characteristics. Compared with adults with no chronic condition, the odds of household food insecurity were 1.43 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.59), 1.86 (95% CI: 1.62, 2.14), and 3.44 (95% CI: 3.02, 3.93) for adults with 1, 2, and 3 or more chronic conditions, respectively. Among food-insecure households, adults with multiple chronic conditions had higher odds of severe household food insecurity than adults with no chronic condition. The chronic ill-health of adults may render their households more vulnerable to food insecurity. This has important practice implications for health professionals who can identify and assist those at risk, but it also suggests that appropriate chronic disease management may reduce the prevalence and severity of food insecurity.
PubMed ID
23986364 View in PubMed
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Coping with child hunger in Canada: have household strategies changed over a decade?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114427
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Nov-Dec;103(6):e428-32
Publication Type
Article
Author
Lynn McIntyre
Aaron C Bartoo
Jody Pow
Melissa L Potestio
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, AB. lmcintyr@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Nov-Dec;103(6):e428-32
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family - psychology
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Assistance - trends - utilization
Humans
Hunger
Male
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
To determine if household coping strategies for child hunger in Canada have changed over a decade (1996-2007).
We applied t-tests to data derived from Cycle 2 (1996-1997; n=8165) and Cycle 7 (2006-2007; n=15,961) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to determine changes in household coping strategies for child hunger. Data were restricted to households with children aged 2-9 years, allowing for cross-sectional analysis of two independent samples. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds of reporting child hunger for socio-demographic characteristics and the odds of using different coping strategies.
The national prevalence of child hunger fell from 1.5% in 1997 to 0.7% in 2007 (p
PubMed ID
23618022 View in PubMed
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Depression and suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood are an outcome of child hunger.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117653
Source
J Affect Disord. 2013 Aug 15;150(1):123-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-15-2013
Author
Lynn McIntyre
Jeanne V A Williams
Dina H Lavorato
Scott Patten
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6. lmcintyr@ucalgary.ca
Source
J Affect Disord. 2013 Aug 15;150(1):123-9
Date
Aug-15-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Depression - etiology - psychology
Female
Food - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Risk factors
Suicidal ideation
Young Adult
Abstract
Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the long-term effects of the reported experience of child hunger on late adolescence and young adult mental health outcomes; and (2) model the independent contribution of the child hunger experience to these long-term mental health outcomes in consideration of other experiences of child disadvantage.
Using logistic regression, we analyzed data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth covering 1994 through 2008/2009, with data on hunger and other exposures drawn from NLSCY Cycle 1 (1994) through Cycle 7 (2006/2007) and mental health data drawn from Cycle 8 (2008/2009). Our main mental health outcome was a composite measure of depression and suicidal ideation.
The prevalence of child hunger was 5.7% (95% CI 5.0-6.4). Child hunger was a robust predictor of depression and suicidal ideation [crude OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8)] even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.3).
A single question was used to assess child hunger, which itself is a rare extreme manifestation of food insecurity; thus, the spectrum of child food insecurity was not examined, and the rarity of hunger constrained statistical power.
Child hunger appears to be a modifiable risk factor for depression and related suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood, therefore prevention through the detection of such children and remedy of their circumstances may be an avenue to improve adult mental health.
Notes
Comment In: Evid Based Med. 2014 Jun;19(3):11324361751
PubMed ID
23276702 View in PubMed
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Diet quality of Atlantic families headed by single mothers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170401
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2006;67(1):28-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
N Theresa Glanville
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2006;67(1):28-35
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet - standards
Diet Records
Female
Food Supply
Humans
Infant
Male
Mothers
Poverty
Single Parent
Abstract
As part of a larger study on food insecurity and dietary adequacy of low-income lone mothers and their children in Atlantic Canada, we examined diet quality among household members.
Network sampling for 'difficult to sample' populations was used to identify mothers living below the poverty line and alone with at least two children under age 14. Trained dietitians administered 24-hour dietary recalls weekly for one month to mothers on the dietary intake of themselves and their children. We calculated Healthy Eating Index category scores for eligible mothers (129) and children (303) using Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating and the Nutrition Recommendations for Canadians.
Diet quality of low-income lone mothers was poor (35.5%) or in need of improvement (64.5%), with no mother having a good diet. The diet quality of children varied by age, with 22.7% of children aged one to three having a good diet or needing improvement (74.6%), 2.1% of children aged four to eight and no child aged nine to 14 having a good diet, while the diets of about 85% of older children in both age categories needed improvement.
Younger children seem to be protected from poor quality diets in households with limited resources to acquire food.
PubMed ID
16515745 View in PubMed
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26 records – page 1 of 3.