to evaluate the association between 2D:4D finger length ratios (representing the prenatal environment, i.e., early androgen exposure) and reproductive indices, such as age at menarche, menopausal age, and length of reproductive period.
Retrospective data on age at menarche and menopausal age as well as x-rays of both hands were obtained from 674 Chuvashian women aged 18-70 years (mean 46.32?±?15.42). Finger and metacarpal length ratios as well as visual classification of finger ratio types, were estimated from the x-rays.
We found that a low 2D:4D ratio (radiologically evaluated), a masculine 2D:4D ratio type (visually evaluated), and a putative bioassay for prenatal androgen exposure, were associated with a later menarche and a shorter reproductive period. No association was found with menopausal age.
Our aim was to establish whether the human basal metabolic rate (BMR) shifts towards the reduction of vital functions as an adaptation response to extreme environmental conditions. Data was collected in arid and Extreme North zones. The arid zone samples included Bedouins living in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, Turkmen students, the Pedagogical University of Chardzhou, Turkmenistan born Russians and Russian soldiers. Soldiers were divided into 3 groups according to the length of their tour of duty in the area: 1st group: up to six months, 2nd group: up to 2 years and the 3rd group: 3-5 years. The Extreme North samples comprised Chukchi natives, 1st generation Russian immigrants born in the area and 3 groups of soldiers comparable to the soldiers from Turkmenistan. BMR values of the new recruits had the highest values of total and relative BMR (1769 ± 16 and 28.3 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The total and relative BMR tended to decrease within a longer adaptation period. The BMR values of officers who served >3 years in Turkmenistan were very similar to the Turkmenistan born Russians (1730 ± 14 vs. 1726 ± 18 and 26.5 ± 0.6 vs. 27.3 ± 0.7, correspondingly). Similarly, in Chukotka, the highest relative BMR was found in the new recruits, serving up to 6 months (28.1 ± 0.7) and was significantly (p 3 years, compared to the middle-aged Chukchi or Chukotka-born Russians (25.8 ± 0.5 vs. 25.6 ± 0.5 and 25.5 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The BMR parameters demonstrated a stronger association with body weight than with age. In extreme environmental conditions, migrant populations showed a decrease in BMR, thus reducing its vital functions. The BMR reduction effect with the adequate adaptive transformation is likely to be the key strategy for developing programs to facilitate human and animal adaptation to extreme factors. This process is aimed at preserving the optimum energy balance and homeostasis while minimizing stress on the body's vital functions.
The secular trend and familial influences on age at menarche among a rural Chuvashian population was examined in a cross-sectional community-based study.
The cohort included 617 females aged 18-80 years, with age at menarche ranging from 10 to 24 years (mean 15.4 +/- 2.1). Statistical analyses included simple linear regression, maximum likelihood estimation and a whiskers plot.
Women born during the second through the fourth decade of the 20th century showed increasing mean values of age at menarche from 15.4 (second decade) up to 16.5 (fourth decade). Women born after the fourth decade showed a decrease in mean values from 15.5 (fifth decade) to 13.0 (ninth decade). The highest peak of age at menarche was in women born in 1932. Significant familial correlations were observed between adjusted to year of birth age at menarche in mothers and daughters r = 0.195, p
The aim of the present study was to evaluate age- and sex-related changes in the geometry parameters (metacarpal cortical index (MCI) and Breaking Bending Resistance Index [BBRI]) of long hand bones in a large Chuvashian cohort using cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. The data were gathered in 1994 (557 individuals) and 2002 (513 individuals). The latter sample included 260 individuals who were studied only during the second expedition, and 253 individuals who were previously investigated in 1994. Statistical analyses included a maximum likelihood-based model-fitting technique and a t-test comparison. Our study describes age-related MCI and BBRI changes in both sexes from the age of 18 years to 84 years. At any age, the BBRI values were higher in males than in females, but MCI was greater in females than in males before age 50 and lower after that age. The study provides initial evidence of a secular trend in MCI and BBRI. In male hand bones, the cortex became relatively thicker and it better resisted bending and breaking in comparison to individuals born at the beginning of the 20th century. In females, the trend toward higher MCI values can be observed only in those born between 1936 and 1966 and the trend toward higher BBRI values stopped in 1950.
Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel. email@example.com
The aim is to evaluate the association between the serum level of vitamin D and prevalence and severity of radiographic hand OA. The study population comprised Chuvashians (91 men with a mean age of 46.24 (20-75) and 99 women with a mean age of 44.94 (18-74)). OA was evaluated for 14 joints of each hand using Kellgren and Lawrence's (K-L) scoring method and osteophytes (OS) scores. The following four outcomes were used: two indices of the number of affected joints (Num-KL and Num-OS) representing severity of hand OA and two indices of the presence of at least one affected joint (dichotomous indices) (Dich-KL and Dich-OS). Vitamin D (25(OH)D) level was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analyses included multiple linear and logistic regressions and one-way ANOVA. Linear regression models showed no significant association between the circulating levels of vitamin D and Num-KL (P = 0.781) or Num-OS (P = 0.338). The logistic regression models showed similar results: Dich-KL: (0.935 (0.864, 1.011), P = 0.093) and Dich-OS: (0.966 (0.896, 1.043), P = 0.378). Results of one-way ANOVA showed no differences in age, sex, and BMI-adjusted Num-KL between individuals with normal levels of vitamin D and those with a vitamin D deficiency (F = 0.023, P = 0.878). Similar results were received when adjusted Num-OS scores were compared (F = 1.553, P = 0.214). After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, no association was found between the serum level of vitamin D and prevalence and severity of radiographic hand OA evaluated using K-L or osteophyte scores.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of joint disease and is considered to be a risk factor for other morbidities. We performed a population-based study to evaluate the association between morbidity and radiographic hand osteoarthritis.
Our population consisted of Chuvashians residing in peripheral villages of the Russian Federation. The investigated cohort included 434 males aged 18-86 years and 385 females aged 18-84 years. Osteoarthritis development was evaluated using the Kellgren and Lawrence grading scheme. Morbidity data was attained from their medical records and divided into 14 categories by an experienced research physician. To explore the relationship between morbidity and age-adjusted radiographic hand osteoarthritis score, one-way analysis of variance was used, with hand osteoarthritis score as a dependent variable and individuals affected vs. non-affected with the specific disease as an independent (grouping) variable.
Statistically significant evidence linking radiographic hand osteoarthritis and morbidities was found in patients with ischemic heart disease and gastrointestinal diseases. Our research indicates that individuals with ischemic heart disease have higher values of radiographic hand osteoarthritis, compared to lower values in individuals with gastrointestinal diseases. Additional research is needed to understand the biological mechanisms of the association between morbidity and osteoarthritis.
The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrical characteristics has been indeed examined extensively, but only a few studies have investigated any connection of somatotypes to BP.
to evaluate the association between BP and various anthropometrical characteristics, including components of somatotypes (using the methods of Heath and Carter and of Deriabin).
The study sample comprised 783 males aged 18-89 years and 720 females aged 18-90 years, all residents of the Chuvasha, Russian Federation. We used multiple regression, Pearson's and canonical correlation analyses.
Periarticular calcification is a common attendant symptom of generalized arterial calcification of infancy, a rare Mendelian disorder caused by mutations of the gene coding for ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1). This prompted us to perform a family-based association study to test the hypothesis that genetic variation at the ENPP1 locus is involved in the etiology of osteoarthritis of the hand. The study population comprised 126 nuclear families with 574 adult individuals living in small villages in the Chuvasha and Bashkirostan autonomies of the Russian Federation. The extent of osteoarthritis was determined by analyzing plain hand radiographs. The outcome of a principal component analysis of osteoarthritis scores of a total of 28 joints of both hands was used as a primary phenotype in this study. Maximum likelihood estimates of the variance component analysis revealed a substantial contribution of genetic factors to the overall trait variance of about 25% in this homogeneous population. Three short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms--one intragenic and two flanking markers--and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms were tested. The markers tagged the ENPP1 locus at nearly equal intervals. We used three different transmission disequilibrium tests and obtained highly significant association signals. Alleles of the upstream microsatellite marker as well as several single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes consistently revealed the association. Thus, our data highlights variability of ENPP1 as an important genetic factor in the pathogenesis of idiopathic osteoarthritis.
Cites: J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Jun;18(6):994-100412817751
The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether Chuvashian women whose maturation was during World War II and the subsequent rehabilitation period were different from women born at other times in terms of age at menarche and age at menopause.
The cohort included 745 Chuvashian females aged 18-90 years; age at menarche (N=653), ranged from 10 to 24 years (mean 15.42+/-2.11). Data regarding menopausal age was obtained from 322 females born between 1915 and 1950 (mean 48.5+/-4.6). We computed descriptive statistics of the age of menopause and the age of menarche for different birth cohorts; we compared the mean values by Student's t-test and the variances by F-test.
The "expected" maturation period of women whose age at menarche >20 and most women whose age at menopause 20 showed normal parameters regarding age at menopause, and women whose age at menopause was
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Although the role of radiographic abnormalities in the etiology of nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is unclear, the frequent identification of these features on radiologic studies continues to influence medical decision making. PURPOSE: The primary purposes of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of lumbar spine degeneration features, evaluated on computed tomography (CT), in a community-based sample and to evaluate the association between lumbar spine degeneration features. The secondary purpose was to evaluate the association between spinal degeneration features and LBP. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional community-based study that was an ancillary project to the Framingham Heart Study. SAMPLE: A subset of 187 participants were chosen from the 3,529 participants enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study who underwent multidetector CT scan to assess aortic calcification. OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-report measures: LBP in the preceding 12 months was evaluated using a Nordic self-report questionnaire. Physiologic measures: Dichotomous variables indicating the presence of intervertebral disc narrowing, facet joint osteoarthritis (OA), spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, and spinal stenosis and the density (in Hounsfield units) of multifidus and erector spinae muscles were evaluated on CT. METHODS: We calculated the prevalence of spinal degeneration features and mean density of multifidus and erector spinae muscles in groups of individuals with and without LBP. Using the chi(2) test for dichotomous and t test for continuous variables, we estimated the differences in spinal degeneration parameters between the aforementioned groups. To evaluate the association of spinal degeneration features with age, the prevalence of degeneration features was calculated in four age groups (less than 40, 40-50, 50-60, and 60+ years). We used multiple logistic regression models to examine the association between spinal degeneration features (before and after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index [BMI]) and LBP, and between all degeneration features and LBP. RESULTS: In total, 104 men and 83 women, with a mean age (+/-standard deviation) of 52.6+/-10.8 years, participated in the study. There was a high prevalence of intervertebral disc narrowing (63.9%), facet joint OA (64.5%), and spondylolysis (11.5%) in the studied sample. When all spinal degeneration features as well as age, sex, and BMI were factored in stepwise fashion into a multiple logistic regression model, only spinal stenosis showed statistically significant association with LBP, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]): 3.45 [1.12-10.68]. Significant association was found between facet joint OA and low density of multifidus (OR [95% CI]: 3.68 [1.36-9.97]) and erector spinae (OR [95% CI]: 2.80 [1.10-7.16]) muscles. CONCLUSIONS: Degenerative features of the lumbar spine were extremely prevalent in this community-based sample. The only degenerative feature associated with self-reported LBP was spinal stenosis. Other degenerative features appear to be unassociated with LBP.