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Diet and lifestyle of the Sami of southern Lapland in the 1930s-1950s and today.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100980
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 May 31;
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-31-2011
Author
Lena Maria Nilsson
Lars Dahlgren
Ingegerd Johansson
Magritt Brustad
Per Sjölander
Bethany Van Guelpen
Author Affiliation
Näringsforskning, Umeå universitet, SE-901 85, Umeå, Sweden. ena.nilsson@nutrires.umu.se.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 May 31;
Date
May-31-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Objectives. To describe the lifestyle of the Sami of southern Lapland 50 to 70 years ago in relation to the present-day Sami and non-Sami populations and, thereby, to provide a basis for future studies of culturally related determinants of health and illness. Study design. A qualitative analysis, and a quantitative comparison of Sami and non-Sami groups. Methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 elderly Sami concerning their parents' lifestyle and diet 50 to 70 years ago. Questionnaire data from 81 reindeer-herding Sami, 226 non-reindeer-herding Sami and 1,842 sex-, age- and geographically matched non-Sami from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Project were analysed by non-parametric tests and partial least squares methodology. Results. Surprisingly, fatty fish may have been more important than reindeer meat for the Sami of southern Lapland in the 1930s to 1950s, and it is still consumed more frequently by reindeer-herding Sami than nonreindeer-herding Sami and non-Sami. Other dietary characteristics of the historical Sami and present-day reindeer-herding Sami were higher intakes of fat, blood and boiled coffee, and lower intakes of bread, fibre and cultivated vegetables, compared with present-day non-Sami. Physical activity was also a part of the daily life of the Sami to a greater extent in the 1930s to 1950s than today. Sami men often worked far from home, while the women were responsible for fishing, farming, gardening (which was introduced in the 1930-1950 period), as well as housework and childcare. Conclusions. For studies investigating characteristic lifestyle elements of specific ethnic groups, the elements of greatest acknowledged cultural importance today (in this case reindeer meat) may not be of the most objective importance traditionally.
PubMed ID
21631968 View in PubMed
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Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143206
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Oct;21(10):1533-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Lena Maria Nilsson
Ingegerd Johansson
Per Lenner
Bernt Lindahl
Bethany Van Guelpen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. lena.nilsson@nutrires.umu.se
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Oct;21(10):1533-44
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Coffee
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Cooking
Drinking
Female
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Despite potentially relevant chemical differences between filtered and boiled coffee, this study is the first to investigate consumption in relation to the risk of incident cancer.
Subjects were from the Västerbotten Intervention Project (64,603 participants, including 3,034 cases), with up to 15 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by multivariate Cox regression.
No associations were found for all cancer sites combined, or for prostate or colorectal cancer. For breast cancer, boiled coffee =4 versus
PubMed ID
20512657 View in PubMed
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Intake of whole grains and incidence of oesophageal cancer in the HELGA Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285601
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2016 Apr;31(4):405-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Guri Skeie
Tonje Braaten
Anja Olsen
Cecilie Kyrø
Anne Tjønneland
Rikard Landberg
Lena Maria Nilsson
Maria Wennberg
Kim Overvad
Lene Angell Åsli
Elisabete Weiderpass
Eiliv Lund
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2016 Apr;31(4):405-14
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology - prevention & control
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - epidemiology - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control
Feeding Behavior
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden
Whole Grains
Abstract
Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer.
PubMed ID
26092139 View in PubMed
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Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105147
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21848
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Eugenia V Dushkina
Yuliya N Sladkova
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Tatijana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Evengård
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21848
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Costs and Cost Analysis
Diet - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Far East - epidemiology
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Food Microbiology - statistics & numerical data
Food Safety
Food Supply - economics - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Malnutrition - economics - epidemiology - etiology
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements - physiology
Russia - epidemiology
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies.
Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories.
In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011.
Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high.
Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security.
Notes
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Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
PubMed ID
24471055 View in PubMed
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Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105572
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21856
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Alexey A Dudarev
Vitaliy M Dorofeyev
Eugenia V Dushkina
Pavel R Alloyarov
Valery S Chupakhin
Yuliya N Sladkova
Tatjana A Kolesnikova
Kirill B Fridman
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Evengard
Author Affiliation
Northwest Public Health Research Center, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:21856
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Far East - epidemiology
Food Contamination
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Russia - epidemiology
Sanitation - standards - statistics & numerical data
Sewage - adverse effects
Siberia - epidemiology
Water Microbiology
Water Pollution - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories.
The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000-2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia.
This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000-2011).
Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis.
Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000-2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72. doi: 10.3402/ijch.v72i0.2153023940840
Cites: Gig Sanit. 2002 Jan-Feb;(1):6611899884
PubMed ID
24350064 View in PubMed
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Whole grain intake and survival among Scandinavian colorectal cancer patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105978
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):6-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Guri Skeie
Tonje Braaten
Anja Olsen
Cecilie Kyrø
Anne Tjønneland
Lena Maria Nilsson
Rikard Landberg
Eiliv Lund
Author Affiliation
a Department of Community Medicine , University of Tromsø , Tromsø , Norway.
Source
Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):6-13
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cereals
Colorectal Neoplasms - diet therapy
Diet
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Scandinavia
Abstract
To our knowledge, no studies of associations between intake of whole grain (WHG) and survival of colorectal cancer have been published, despite evidence that dietary fiber, and to some extent WHG, are associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Scandinavia is an area where the WHG consumption traditionally is high. We performed a case-only (N = 1119) study in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort of pre-diagnosis WHG intake (total WHG, WHG wheat, WHG rye, and WHG oats) and survival of colorectal cancer. Cox regression analyses were used to study the associations, both in categorical and continuous models, stratified by location (proximal, distal, rectum) and country. No evidence of an association was found, neither for total WHG intake (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.88-1.97 lowest vs. highest tertile, adjusted for age at diagnosis, metastasis status, smoking, folate, margarine, and energy), nor for specific grains. Prediagnosis consumption of WHG does not seem to improve survival of colorectal cancer in subjects diagnosed within this prospective population-based Scandinavian cohort.
PubMed ID
24274588 View in PubMed
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Associations among 25-year trends in diet, cholesterol and BMI from 140,000 observations in men and women in Northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123566
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ingegerd Johansson
Lena Maria Nilsson
Birgitta Stegmayr
Kurt Boman
Göran Hallmans
Anna Winkvist
Author Affiliation
Department of Odontology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. ingegerd.johansson@odont.umu.se
Source
Nutr J. 2012;11:40
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - trends
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet Surveys
Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted - adverse effects
Diet, High-Fat - adverse effects
Diet, Reducing - adverse effects - trends
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health promotion
Humans
Male
Mass Media - trends
Middle Aged
Patient Compliance - ethnology
Sex Characteristics
Sweden
Weight Gain
Abstract
In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden.
Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI.
Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women) or 2004 (men). A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women) and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking.
Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986-1992) of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders, which coincided with introduction of a positive media support for low carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diet. The decrease and following increase in cholesterol levels occurred simultaneously with the time trends in food selection, whereas a constant increase in BMI remained unaltered. These changes in risk factors may have important effects on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Notes
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PubMed ID
22686621 View in PubMed
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The Mediterranean diet score and mortality are inversely associated in adults living in the subarctic region.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123045
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Aug;142(8):1547-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Gianluca Tognon
Lena Maria Nilsson
Lauren Lissner
Ingegerd Johansson
Göran Hallmans
Bernt Lindahl
Anna Winkvist
Author Affiliation
Public Health Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. gianluca.tognon@gu.se
Source
J Nutr. 2012 Aug;142(8):1547-53
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Diet Surveys
Diet, Mediterranean - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - classification - epidemiology - mortality
Nutrition Surveys
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The Mediterranean diet has been widely promoted and may be associated with chronic disease prevention and a better overall health status. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the Mediterranean diet score inversely predicted total or cause-specific mortality in a prospective population study in Northern Sweden (Västerbotten Intervention Program). The analyses were performed in 77,151 participants (whose diet was measured by means of a validated FFQ) by Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for several potential confounders. The Mediterranean diet score was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in men [HR = 0.96 (95% CI = 0.93, 0.99)] and women [HR = 0.95 (95% CI = 0.91, 0.99)], although not in obese men. In men, but not in women, the score was inversely associated with total cancer mortality [HR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.87, 0.98)], particularly for pancreas cancer [HR = 0.82 (95% CI = 0.68, 0.99)]. Cardiovascular mortality was inversely associated with diet only in women [HR = 0.90 (95% CI = 0.82, 0.99)]. Except for alcohol [HR = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.76, 0.90)] and fruit intake [HR = 0.90 (95% CI = 0.83, 0.98)], no food item of the Mediterranean diet score independently predicted mortality. Higher scores were associated with increasing age, education, and physical activity. Moreover, healthful dietary and lifestyle-related factors additively decreased the mortality likelihood. Even in a subarctic region, increasing Mediterranean diet scores were associated with a longer life, although the protective effect of diet was of small magnitude compared with other healthful dietary and lifestyle-related factors examined.
PubMed ID
22739377 View in PubMed
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Dietary inflammatory index and risk of first myocardial infarction; a prospective population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286526
Source
Nutr J. 2017 Apr 04;16(1):21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-04-2017
Author
Stina Bodén
Maria Wennberg
Bethany Van Guelpen
Ingegerd Johansson
Bernt Lindahl
Jonas Andersson
Nitin Shivappa
James R Hebert
Lena Maria Nilsson
Source
Nutr J. 2017 Apr 04;16(1):21
Date
Apr-04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biomarkers - blood
Body mass index
C-Reactive Protein - metabolism
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Exercise
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Inflammation - blood - epidemiology
Interleukin-6 - blood
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - blood - epidemiology
Nutrition Assessment
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Chronic, low-grade inflammation is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The inflammatory impact of diet can be reflected by concentrations of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream and the inflammatory potential of diet can be estimated by the dietary inflammatory index (DII(TM)), which has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk in some previous studies. We aimed to examine the association between the DII and the risk of first myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based study with long follow-up.
We conducted a prospective case-control study of 1389 verified cases of first MI and 5555 matched controls nested within the population-based cohorts of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS), of which the largest is the ongoing Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) with nearly 100 000 participants during the study period. Median follow-up from recruitment to MI diagnosis was 6.4 years (6.2 for men and 7.2 for women). DII scores were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered in 1986-2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using quartile 1 (most anti-inflammatory diet) as the reference category. For validation, general linear models were used to estimate the association between the DII scores and two inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in a subset (n?=?605) of the study population.
Male participants with the most pro-inflammatory DII scores had an increased risk of MI [ORQ4vsQ1?=?1.57 (95% CI 1.21-2.02) P trend?=?0.02], which was essentially unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors [ORQ4vsQ1?=?1.50 (95% CI 1.14-1.99), P trend?=?0.10]. No association was found between DII and MI in women. An increase of one DII score unit was associated with 9% higher hsCRP (95% CI 0.03-0.14) and 6% higher IL-6 (95% CI 0.02-0.11) in 605 controls with biomarker data available.
A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with an elevated risk of first myocardial infarction in men; whereas for women the relationship was null. Consideration of the inflammatory impact of diet could improve prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28376792 View in PubMed
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Longitudinal 10-year changes in dietary intake and associations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286527
Source
Nutr J. 2017 Mar 28;16(1):20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-28-2017
Author
Anna Winkvist
Sofia Klingberg
Lena Maria Nilsson
Maria Wennberg
Frida Renström
Göran Hallmans
Kurt Boman
Ingegerd Johansson
Source
Nutr J. 2017 Mar 28;16(1):20
Date
Mar-28-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood pressure
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cholesterol - blood
Exercise
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Healthy Diet
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology - prevention & control
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Triglycerides - blood
Abstract
Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk.
In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (±1) years apart in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory Index were calculated and related to body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and blood pressure at the second visit in multivariable regression analyses.
For both sexes, on group level, proportion of energy intake (E%) from carbohydrates and sucrose decreased (largest carbohydrate decrease among 40 year-olds) and E% protein and total fat as well as saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (highest protein increase among 30 year-olds and highest fat increase among 60 year-olds) over the 10-year period. Also, E% trans-fatty acids decreased. On individual basis, for both sexes decreases in intake of cholesterol and trans-fatty acids were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P?
Notes
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PubMed ID
28351404 View in PubMed
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