Limited data are available on adverse events among children admitted to hospital. The Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study was done to describe the epidemiology of adverse events among children in hospital in Canada.
We performed a 2-stage medical record review at 8 academic pediatric centres and 14 community hospitals in Canada. We reviewed charts from patients admitted from April 2008 through March 2009, evenly distributed across 4 age groups (0 to 28 d; 29 to 365 d; > 1 to 5 yr and > 5 to 18 yr). In stage 1, nurses and health records personnel who had received training in the use of the Canadian Paediatric Trigger Tool reviewed medical records to detect triggers for possible adverse events. In stage 2, physicians reviewed the charts identified as having triggers and described the adverse events.
A total of 3669 children were admitted to hospital during the study period. The weighted rate of adverse events was 9.2%. Adverse events were more frequent in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65-5.39). The incidence of preventable adverse events was not significantly different between types of hospital, but nonpreventable adverse events were more common in academic pediatric centres (adjusted OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.08-9.27). Surgical events predominated overall and occurred more frequently in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals (37.2% v. 21.5%, relative risk [RR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.1), whereas events associated with diagnostic errors were significantly less frequent (11.1% v. 23.1%, RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-0.9).
More children have adverse events in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals; however, adverse events in the former are less likely to be preventable. There are many opportunities to reduce harm affecting children in hospital in Canada, particularly related to surgery, intensive care and diagnostic error.
Maternal attitudes to infant feeding are predictive of intent and initiation of breastfeeding.
The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) has not been validated in the Canadian population. This study was conducted in Newfoundland and Labrador, a Canadian province with low breastfeeding rates. Objectives were to assess the reliability and validity of the IIFAS in expectant mothers; to compare attitudes to infant feeding in urban and rural areas; and to examine whether attitudes are associated with intent to breastfeed.
The IIFAS assessment tool was administered to 793 pregnant women. Differences in the total IIFAS scores were compared between urban and rural areas. Reliability and validity analysis was conducted on the IIFAS. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of the IIFAS was assessed against mother's intent to breastfeed.
The mean ? SD of the total IIFAS score of the overall sample was 64.0 ? 10.4. There were no significant differences in attitudes between urban (63.9 ? 10.5) and rural (64.4 ? 9.9) populations. There were significant differences in total IIFAS scores between women who intend to breastfeed (67.3 ? 8.3) and those who do not (51.6 ? 7.7), regardless of population region. The high value of the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC (AUC = 0.92) demonstrates excellent ability of the IIFAS to predict intent to breastfeed. The internal consistency of the IIFAS was strong, with a Cronbach's alpha greater than .80 in the overall sample.
The IIFAS examined in this provincial population provides a valid and reliable assessment of maternal attitudes toward infant feeding. This tool could be used to identify mothers less likely to breastfeed and to inform health promotion programs.
The prevalence of childhood obesity in Canada is a major concern. Studies report a small but significant inverse relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and childhood obesity. The study objectives were to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a preschool population living in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and preschool obesity.
This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,026 children born in 2001 who participated in the Pre Kindergarten Health Fairs in 2005. Heights and weights were collected and body mass index (BMI) calculated. The BMI-for-age references used by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in the United States were used to classify the weight status of children. Infant feeding information was collected through a survey. The relationship between breastfeeding and childhood obesity was examined using logistic regression models controlling for child's age and gender, mother's education and smoking status, and whether the baby was preterm or full-term.
In 2005, 65%, 19% and 16% of preschool children were normal, overweight and obese, respectively. 74% of women initiated breastfeeding and 43% exclusively breastfed to 3 months. Exclusive breastfeeding to 3 months was protective of preschool obesity (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.65, 95% CI 0.45-0.96).
Obesity is prevalent in preschool children in NL. Exclusive breastfeeding appeared to be a protective factor for obesity in preschoolers. Given the known benefits of breastfeeding and the adverse health consequences of obesity, efforts should be made to increase exclusive breastfeeding which may help to prevent the development of obesity in young children.
The aim of this study was to calculate incidence and hospitalization rates of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Newfoundland and Labrador, and to assess hospitalization trends and associated factors. Data for all patients aged 0-19 years with a diagnosis of T1DM was obtained from the clinical database management system (CDMS) for a 7-year period between April 1, 1995 and March 31, 2002. Incidence was calculated for the 0-7 years age group. A total of 894 T1DM hospital separations among children aged 0-19 years were identified, representing a hospitalization rate of 88.6 per 100,000 person-years (P-Y). The CDMS identified 518 incidences of hospitalization (51.2 per 100,000 P-Y). The overall hospitalization rate increased over the study period (P((2))=0.065). Hospitalization rates for males and females were 77.3 and 100.2 per 100,000 P-Y, respectively (P((2))=0.00011). Of the 894 hospitalization separations, 216 hospitalizations were for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (21.4 per 100,000 P-Y). Female gender and older age were found to be predictive factors of DKA. The incidence rate of T1DM among children aged 0-7 years was 19.0 per 100,000 P-Y. Newfoundland and Labrador has one of the highest incidence rates of T1DM in the world. Hospitalization rates for DKA and non-DKA increased slightly over the study period. Age and sex patterns suggest that DKA is a particular challenge among adolescent girls. Preventive strategies are needed, particularly in areas of the province with the highest rates.
Erratum In: Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Feb;75(2):252
Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has a very high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and admission rate for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics and precipitating factors associated with pediatric DKA in this population.
This was a retrospective study on children diagnosed with DKA from 2007-2011 admitted to the province's only tertiary care pediatric hospital. Demographics, biochemical characteristics, and reasons for DKA diagnosis were analyzed. Chi-square and Fisher Exact tests were performed for categorical variables; t- and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for continuous variables.
A total of 90 children were admitted with DKA (39.5% newly diagnosed; 60.5% were previously diagnosed). The rate of DKA on presentation for incident cases was 22.1%. More severe cases of DKA occurred in younger, newly diagnosed patients. Almost half of preexisting diabetes cases were recurrent DKA (49.1%). The most common presenting characteristics of newly diagnosed patients were weight loss, bedwetting, polyuria, polydipsia, and neurologic symptoms. Pre-existing diabetes patients most often presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Diagnosis of diabetes in new patients and issues related to interrupted insulin delivery in pre-existing patients using insulin pump therapy were the most common factors associated with DKA. Of the newly diagnosed patients presenting in DKA, 64% had seen a physician in the weeks leading up to diagnosis.
Pediatric patients have predictable patterns associated with a diagnosis of DKA. Most cases of DKA could be prevented with earlier diagnosis and improved education and problem-solving by families and health care providers. DKA preventative strategies are recommended and should be aimed at patients, their families, and health care professionals especially those outside of pediatric centers.
Despite high rates of intention to exclusively breastfeed, rates of exclusive breastfeeding in Canada are low. Supplementation may begin in hospital and is associated with reduced breastfeeding duration. Research aim: The aim of this investigation was to explore determinants of in-hospital nonmedically indicated supplementation of infants whose birthing parents intended to exclusively breastfeed.
This study is a cross-sectional one-group nonexperimental design, focused on participants who intended to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months ( n = 496). Data were collected between October 2011 and October 2015 in Newfoundland and Labrador. Variables measured included age; rural/urban location; education; income; race; marital status; parity; smoking status; having been breastfed as an infant; previous breastfeeding experience; Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale score; delivery mode; infant birth weight; birth satisfaction; skin-to-skin contact; length of participant's hospital stay; breastfeeding advice from a lactation consultant, registered nurse, or physician; and first impression of breastfeeding. We evaluated determinants of in-hospital nonmedically indicated supplementation using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Overall, 16.9% ( n = 84) of infants received nonmedically indicated supplementation in hospital. Multivariate modeling revealed four determinants: low total prenatal Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale score (odds ratio [OR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.18, 3.27]), no previous breastfeeding experience (OR = 2.03, 95% CI [1.15, 3.61]), negative first impression of breastfeeding (OR = 2.67, 95% CI [1.61, 4.43]), and receiving breastfeeding advice from a hospital physician (OR = 2.86, 95% CI [1.59, 5.15]).
Elements of the hospital experience, self-efficacy, and attitudes toward infant feeding are determinants of nonmedically indicated supplementation of infants whose birthing parents intended to exclusively breastfeed.
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) has been previously associated with northern latitude and vitamin D insufficiency. This study investigates the geospatial association between average daily ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance and T1DM across the province of Newfoundland (NL), Canada. NL has one of the highest documented incidences of T1DM worldwide. A complete list of patients diagnosed (1987-2005) with T1DM in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) was constructed using multiple sources. All places of habitation at diagnosis were ascertained. Ecological analysis using Bayesian estimation was performed employing both NASA UVB data and latitude. Correlation of T1DM to both UVB irradiation and latitude was measured. A statistically significant correlation of erythemal UVB irradiance was observed (-0.0284: 95% CI -0.0542 to -0.0096). A more significant correlation of T1DM was observed with erythemal UVB irradiance than with latitude. This study suggests that erythemal UVB radiation may be geospatially associated with the incidence of T1DM in NL.
This article explores the perspectives of low-income women in order to better understand the social context that shapes their infant-feeding perspectives and experiences. The authors used purposive sampling to conduct 3 focus groups with 19 women who were formula-feeding their infants in 1 urban and 2 rural communities in the eastern region of the island of Newfoundland in Canada. Elements of the social context for infant-feeding included the prevalence of myths and misinformation about breastfeeding; cultural expectations about infant behaviour; the postnatal experience, including the medicalization of birth and breastfeeding; partner support and child-care workload; cultural stigma of breastfeeding; and a moralizing ideology that equates breastfeeding with "good mothering. "The authors discuss the implications of the findings from a nursing and public health perspective, offering 7 recommendations for how nurses and health professionals might better support women and their families.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality for youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This article reports qualitative data from focus groups with youth and parents of youth with T1DM on the barriers that they identify to DKA prevention and resources that may aid youth better manage their diabetes.
Four focus groups were held in three communities, two rural and one urban, in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) with adolescents and parents of youth with diabetes. Open-ended questions focused on knowledge of DKA, diabetes education, personal experiences with DKA, barriers to diabetes self-management, situations which put them at risk for DKA and resources that could be developed to aid youth in preventing DKA.
There were 19 participants (14 parents and 5 youth). Participants identified factors which increased their risk of DKA as difficulty in distinguishing cases of DKA from other illnesses; variations in diabetes education received; information overload about their condition; the long period from initial diagnosis, when most education about the condition was received; and stress regarding situations where youth are not in the direct care of their parents. Participants from rural areas reported geographical isolation and lack of regular access to specialist health care personnel as additional barriers to better diabetes management.
The project identified barriers to DKA prevention for youth which were not previously identified in the medical literature, e.g., the stress associated with temporary guardians, risk of information overload at initial diagnosis and the long period from initial diagnosis when most diabetes education is received. Families from rural areas do report additional burdens, but in some cases these families have developed community supports to help offset some of these problems. Mobile and online resources, educational refreshers about DKA, concise resources for teachers and other temporary guardians, and DKA treatment kits for parents may help improve diabetes management and prevent future episodes of DKA.
Research has suggested that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency is common at northern latitudes, and that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency may be common during pregnancy. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH]D) status of pregnant women across the province of Newfoundland and Labrador in both summer and winter to investigate seasonal differences, age associations, and differences in geospatial distribution across the province.
We uniformly and randomly sampled blood from pregnant women in each of 79 census consolidated subdivisions across Newfoundland and Labrador from January to March 2007 and from July to September 2007.
We obtained 304 samples from the end of winter (March) and 289 samples from the end of summer (September). Mean serum 25-(OH)D concentration was 52.1 nmol/L in winter and 68.6 nmol/L in summer (P