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Antibiotic exposure in infancy and risk of being overweight in the first 24 months of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263743
Source
Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):617-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Antti Saari
Lauri J Virta
Ulla Sankilampi
Leo Dunkel
Harri Saxen
Source
Pediatrics. 2015 Apr;135(4):617-26
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Body Height - drug effects
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Macrolides - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Male
Overweight - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk
Sex Factors
Statistics as Topic
Weight Gain - drug effects
Abstract
Antibiotics have direct effects on the human intestinal microbiota, particularly in infancy. Antibacterial agents promote growth in farm animals by unknown mechanisms, but little is known about their effects on human weight gain. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of antibiotic exposure during infancy on weight and height in healthy Finnish children.
The population-based cohort comprised 6114 healthy boys and 5948 healthy girls having primary care weight and height measurements and drug purchase data from birth to 24 months. BMI and height, expressed as z-scores at the median age of 24 months (interquartile range 24 to 26 months), were compared between children exposed and unexposed to antibiotics using analysis of covariance with perinatal factors as covariates.
Exposed children were on average heavier than unexposed children (adjusted BMI-for-age z-score difference in boys 0.13 SD [95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.19, P 1 exposure (boys 0.20 [0.10 to 0.30]; girls 0.13 [0.03 to 0.22]).
Antibiotic exposure before 6 months of age, or repeatedly during infancy, was associated with increased body mass in healthy children. Such effects may play a role in the worldwide childhood obesity epidemic and highlight the importance of judicious use of antibiotics during infancy, favoring narrow-spectrum antibiotics.
PubMed ID
25825533 View in PubMed
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Antidepressant use among paediatric patients with recent-onset inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide case control study in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261629
Source
J Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Jul;50(7):562-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Lauri J Virta
Kaija-Leena Kolho
Source
J Paediatr Child Health. 2014 Jul;50(7):562-5
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Case-Control Studies
Child
Depression - drug therapy - etiology
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - psychology
Male
Registries
Abstract
Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) appear to be at increased risk of psychosocial problems, but there are few large-scale studies related to mental health in paediatric IBD. We aimed to assess the use of antidepressants among adolescents with recent-onset IBD.
In a Finnish nationwide register-based study, we assessed dispensed prescribed antidepressants in 248 adolescents with incident IBD and in 992 peers individually matched for age, sex and place of residence between 1 January 2006 and 30 September 2010. For comparison, dispensed prescribed centrally acting sympathomimetics (ADHD drugs) were also assessed. Purchases of these drugs, available by prescription only, were considered proxy indicators for drug use.
We observed a significant difference in the frequency of antidepressant use among adolescents with IBD (3.2%) when compared with peers (1.2%; P = 0.031) up to 3 years from diagnosis. In the use of ADHD drugs there was no difference between the groups.
The findings address the disease burden of the gut disease and reflect the importance of considering mental health in adolescents with IBD.
PubMed ID
24612280 View in PubMed
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The association between asthma and type 1 diabetes: a paediatric case-cohort study in Finland, years 1981-2009.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298640
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2018 04 01; 47(2):409-416
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-01-2018
Author
Johanna Metsälä
Annamari Lundqvist
Lauri J Virta
Minna Kaila
Mika Gissler
Suvi M Virtanen
Jaakko Nevalainen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2018 04 01; 47(2):409-416
Date
04-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Asthma - complications - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - complications - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
The association between asthma and type 1 diabetes, two chronic, immune-mediated diseases, has been of longstanding interest, but the evidence is still conflicting. We examined this association in a large, nationwide case-cohort study among Finnish children, using a novel statistical approach.
Among the initial cohort of all children born between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2008, those who were diagnosed with asthma (n?=?81 473) or type 1 diabetes (n?=?9541) up to age 16 years by the end of 2009 were identified from the Central Drug Register maintained by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. A 10% random sample from each initial birth year cohort was selected as a reference cohort (n?=?171 138). The association between asthma and type 1 diabetes was studied using a multistate modelling approach to estimate transition rates between healthy and disease states since birth. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to represent the change in the transition rate between the disease states.
After adjusting for sex and birth decade, previous diagnosis of asthma increased the risk of subsequent type 1 diabetes by 41% (95% CI: 1.28, 1.54), whereas previous diagnosis of type 1 diabetes decreased the risk of subsequent asthma by 18% (95% CI: 0.69, 0.98).
The findings of the present study imply that the association between the diseases is more complex than previously thought, and its direction depends on the sequential appearance of the diseases.
PubMed ID
29211844 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular comorbidities antedating the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118691
Source
Ann Rheum Dis. 2013 Nov;72(11):1826-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Anne M Kerola
Tuomas Kerola
Markku J Kauppi
Hannu Kautiainen
Lauri J Virta
Kari Puolakka
Tuomo V M Nieminen
Author Affiliation
Medical School, University of Helsinki, , Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Ann Rheum Dis. 2013 Nov;72(11):1826-9
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Arthritis, Rheumatoid - epidemiology - immunology
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - immunology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hypertension - epidemiology - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Rheumatoid Factor - immunology
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Abstract
To assess the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and chronic hypertension among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at the time of diagnosis, in comparison with age-specific and sex-specific non-RA subjects. Furthermore, the impacts of age at the onset of RA, as well as gender and the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) on the risk of these comorbidities, were evaluated.
A cohort of 7209 RA patients diagnosed between January 2004 and December 2007 was identified, based on a Finnish nationwide register on special reimbursements for medication costs. The presence of CHD and chronic hypertension antedating the diagnosis of RA was identified from the same register. The prevalence of the cardiovascular comorbidities was compared with the general Finnish population, and a standardised rate ratio (SRR) for both these cardiovascular diseases was calculated.
The risk of having CHD at RA diagnosis was slightly elevated, the SRR being 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.20). Younger age at the onset of RA seemed to be related with higher SRR for CHD. In a subset analysis, an increased prevalence of hypertension (SRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.30) and CHD (SRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.32) was apparent only among the RF negative RA cases.
The SRR for CHD is augmented in RA patients already at disease onset, and more pronouncedly in early onset RA. The findings highlight the importance of early prevention of atherosclerosis, regardless of RF status.
PubMed ID
23178207 View in PubMed
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Choice of the first anti-epileptic drug in elderly patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy: A Finnish retrospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273539
Source
Seizure. 2015 Sep;31:27-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Emmi Bruun
Lauri J Virta
Reetta Kälviäinen
Tapani Keränen
Source
Seizure. 2015 Sep;31:27-32
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anticonvulsants - therapeutic use
Comorbidity
Epilepsy - drug therapy - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Practice Patterns, Physicians' - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Young Adult
Abstract
The choice of initial anti-epileptic drug (AED) for elderly and younger adult patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy was assessed.
The pattern of initial prescription of AEDs between 2000 and 2013 was retrospectively studied in two community-dwelling cohorts, identified from the case records of Kuopio University Hospital (KUH): elderly subjects (aged 65 or above at the time of diagnosis; n = 529) and a random sample of younger adults (16-64 years old at the time of diagnosis; n = 201). Furthermore, nationwide register data from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were included in the analysis, from the years 2004 and 2012.
Valproic acid (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) were the most common initial AEDs both among the elderly (49% and 31% of prescriptions, respectively) and for the patients in the younger-adults group (19% and 61%, respectively) in the KUH data. In the nationwide register data, the most frequently used initial AEDs for the elderly were VPA and oxcarbazepine. The selection of VPA was associated with higher age (P
PubMed ID
26362374 View in PubMed
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Cow's milk allergy, asthma, and pediatric IBD.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117251
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Jun;56(6):649-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013
Author
Lauri J Virta
Merja Ashorn
Kaija-Leena Kolho
Author Affiliation
Department of Research, Social Insurance Institution, Turku, Finland.
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013 Jun;56(6):649-51
Date
Jun-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Asthma - immunology - physiopathology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Colitis, Ulcerative - epidemiology - etiology - immunology
Crohn Disease - epidemiology - etiology - immunology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - immunology
Male
Milk Hypersensitivity - immunology - physiopathology
Odds Ratio
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
We identified a total of 595 Finnish children born in 1994-2008 and diagnosed as having inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by October 2010 from the National Reimbursement Register (based on certificates including the diagnostic criteria) to determine whether the presence of cow's milk allergy (CMA) or asthma is associated with the risk of contracting IBD (altogether 2380 matched controls). A diagnosis of CMA in infancy was associated with Crohn disease (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.36, P
PubMed ID
23319082 View in PubMed
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Cow's Milk Allergy in Infancy and Later Development of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Register-Based Case-Control Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285667
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Jul 15;186(2):237-244
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-2017
Author
Miika Arvonen
Lauri J Virta
Tytti Pokka
Liisa Kröger
Paula Vähäsalo
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Jul 15;186(2):237-244
Date
Jul-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Animals
Arthritis, Juvenile - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Cattle
Child
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Milk Hypersensitivity - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
We examined the association between cow's milk allergy (CMA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The material for this case-control study was collected from national registers of all children born in Finland between 2000 and 2010 and diagnosed with JIA (n = 1,298) and age-, sex-, and place-matched controls (n = 5,179). We identified 235 children with CMA; 66 of these children also had JIA. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between CMA and JIA and to test whether exposure to antibiotics would be a covariate for this association. In boys (but not in girls), a diagnosis of CMA and the use of hypoallergenic formula in infancy were associated with the later development of JIA (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.6, 3.6). The association was most evident in boys who were diagnosed with JIA before age 3 years or diagnosed with CMA with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms. There was no statistically significant additive interaction between CMA and antibiotic exposure in the later development of JIA. These associations may reflect impaired maturation of intestinal immunity and integrity in boys with a risk of JIA. Predisposing factors related to JIA pathogenesis seem to display a sex-linked disparity.
PubMed ID
28459985 View in PubMed
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The decline in joint replacement surgery in rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a concomitant increase in the intensity of anti-rheumatic therapy: a nationwide register-based study from 1995 through 2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107614
Source
Acta Orthop. 2013 Aug;84(4):331-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Esa Jämsen
Lauri J Virta
Markku Hakala
Markku J Kauppi
Antti Malmivaara
Matti U K Lehto
Author Affiliation
Coxa, Hospital for Joint Replacement, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Acta Orthop. 2013 Aug;84(4):331-7
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antirheumatic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Arthritis, Rheumatoid - drug therapy - surgery
Arthroplasty, Replacement - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hydroxychloroquine - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Male
Methotrexate - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Registries
Sulfasalazine - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Abstract
Drug-based treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has evolved markedly over the past 2 decades. Using nationwide register data, we studied how this has affected the rates of hip, knee, shoulder, and elbow replacement from 1995 to 2010.
The number of primary joint replacements was obtained from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. To test the hypothesis that improvements in medical treatment of RA reduce the need for joint replacements, we also collected data about purchases of different disease-modifying anti-rheumatic agents (DMARDs) and biological drugs from the nationwide drug registers.
The annual incidence of primary joint replacements for RA declined from 19 per 10(5) in 1995 to 11 per 10(5) in 2010. The decline was greater for upper-limb operations than for lower-limb operations. At the same time, the numbers of individuals using methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, and sulfasalazine (the most commonly used DMARDs) increased 2- to 4-fold.
Our results are in accordance with observations from other countries, and indicate that the use of joint replacements in RA has decreased dramatically. Our data suggest that effective medical therapy is the most likely explanation for this favorable development.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23992137 View in PubMed
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Effectiveness of new legislation on partial sickness benefit on work participation: a quasi-experiment in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264804
Source
BMJ Open. 2014;4(12):e006685
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Johanna Kausto
Eira Viikari-Juntura
Lauri J Virta
Raija Gould
Aki Koskinen
Svetlana Solovieva
Source
BMJ Open. 2014;4(12):e006685
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Disabled Persons - legislation & jurisprudence
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Sick Leave - legislation & jurisprudence
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
To examine the effect of the new legislation on partial sickness benefit on subsequent work participation of Finns with long-term sickness absence. Additionally, we investigated whether the effect differed by sex, age or diagnostic category.
A register-based quasi-experimental study compared the intervention (partial sick leave) group with the comparison (full sick leave) group regarding their pre-post differences in the outcome. The preintervention and postintervention period each consisted of 365 days.
Nationwide, individual-level data on the beneficiaries of partial or full sickness benefit in 2008 were obtained from national sickness insurance, pension and earnings registers.
1738 persons in the intervention and 56,754 persons in the comparison group.
Work participation, measured as the proportion (%) of time within 365 days when participants were gainfully employed and did not receive either partial or full ill-health-related or unemployment benefits.
Although work participation declined in both groups, the decline was 5% (absolute difference-in-differences) smaller in the intervention than in the comparison group, with a minor sex difference. The beneficial effect of partial sick leave was seen especially among those aged 45-54 (5%) and 55-65 (6%) and in mental disorders (13%). When the groups were rendered more exchangeable (propensity score matching on age, sex, diagnostic category, income, occupation, insurance district, work participation, sickness absence, rehabilitation periods and unemployment, prior to intervention and their interaction terms), the effects on work participation were doubled and seen in all age groups and in other diagnostic categories than traumas.
The results suggest that the new legislation has potential to increase work participation of the population with long-term sickness absence in Finland. If applied in a larger scale, partial sick leave may turn out to be a useful tool in reducing withdrawal of workers from the labour market due to health reasons.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25539780 View in PubMed
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High and increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in Finland with a clear North-South difference.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119088
Source
J Crohns Colitis. 2013 Aug;7(7):e256-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Airi Jussila
Lauri J Virta
Veikko Salomaa
Juhani Mäki
Antti Jula
Martti A Färkkilä
Author Affiliation
Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. airi.jussila@fimnet.fi
Source
J Crohns Colitis. 2013 Aug;7(7):e256-62
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases - epidemiology
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Poisson Distribution
Prevalence
Registries
Vitamin D Deficiency - epidemiology
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) prevalence has increased and a North-South gradient has been reported. We estimated the nationwide prevalence of IBD, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in 1993, and prevalence of IBD in 2008, and assessed the geographical distribution of IBD in Finland. In addition, we investigated the vitamin D levels in a study population from a large, nationally representative health examination survey, the Health 2000 Survey.
The register study for prevalences included all patients who had special reimbursement of medications for IBD in the years 1993 (n=10,958) and 2008 (31,703). The study for D-vitamin measurement consisted of 6134 persons who had participated in the Health 2000 Survey.
The nationwide point prevalence of IBD in 1993 was 216 per 100,000 inhabitants, and 595 in 2008. In 1993, the prevalence of UC (177) was fourfold higher than the prevalence of CD (38). The prevalence of IBD and UC in Finland increased from South to North. For CD, no geographical variation could be demonstrated. In the Health 2000 survey, vitamin D levels were lower in Northern than in Southern Finland.
Finland belongs to high prevalence area of IBD and this prevalence has increased nearly threefold during the past 15 years. A clear North-South gradient has been shown for IBD and UC, but not for CD. Slightly lower vitamin D levels in Northern Finland may be associated with the observed higher prevalence of IBD there.
Notes
Comment In: J Crohns Colitis. 2014 Aug 1;8(8):90224491517
PubMed ID
23140840 View in PubMed
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36 records – page 1 of 4.