We used genome wide expression (GWE) data of circulating blood cells and pathway analysis to investigate the inflammatory and other molecular pathways that may be associated with long-standing depressive symptoms. Participants were 607 women and 316 men (mean age 42 years) from the Young Finns Study who participated in three consecutive study phases in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Using Gene-set enrichment analyses (GSEA) we focused our analyses to pathways (available in MSigDB database) that are likely to affect immunological and inflammatory processes. GSEA were performed for blood cell GWE data in 2012. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a modified 21-item Beck Depression Inventory in each of the three study phases. Participants who scored in the top quartile of depressive symptoms in each of the three measurement points (n = 191) differed from other participants (n = 732) in several gene-set pathways related to inflammatory processes or immune-inflammatory signaling including interleukin (IL-1) pathway, and pathways related to various immuno-inflammatory processes, such as toll-like, the NEF protein, the nuclear factor kB, the kinase AKT and the mature B cell antigen receptor pathway (false discovery rates, FDRs
We examined the association between adulthood emotionality-activity-sociability temperament scale and preclinical atherosclerosis and, whether this association is mediated by cardiovascular risk factors (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body-mass index (BMI)). The participants were a nationally representative sample of 537 men and 811 women from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study aged 15-30 years at the baseline in 1992 and aged 24-39 years at the follow-up in 2001. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by ultrasound scans of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). In men, there was an association between the temperament dimension activity and IMT (ß = 0.08, p = 0.036) which was partially mediated by BMI (ß decreased from 0.08 to 0.05; p-value of Sobel test = 0.002). However, after correction for multiple comparisons the association between IMT and the temperament dimension activity in men was only of borderline significance. In women, there were no associations between temperament and IMT or FMD. These results suggest that a highly active temperament may contribute to early signs of atherosclerosis in men and that body mass may mediate this association.
Over the recent decades, the incidence of cardiovascular and heart diseases has decreased while levels of type-A behavior, i.e., a potential risk factor, appear to have increased. However, the long-term developmental patterns of type-A behavior is poorly understood. Both age- and cohort-related changes may be involved in these developments.
The purpose of this study was to examine an age- and cohort-related changes of Hunter-Wolf type-A behavior from adolescence to adulthood.
Type-A behavior and its components (aggressiveness, leadership, hard driving, and eagerness energy) were assessed using the Hunter-Wolf A-B rating scale at five time points (1983, 1986, 1989, 2001, and 2007) in a population-based sample consisting of six birth cohorts born between 1962 and 1977 (n?=?3,341, a total of 10,506 person observations). Development of type-A behavior and its components was examined with cohort-sequential multilevel modeling.
Aggressiveness decreased with age, eagerness energy, hard driving, and global type-A behavior increased, and leadership exhibited no mean level changes. Younger cohorts had higher aggressiveness, lower hard driving, and global type-A behavior.
The findings suggest that in order to understand the health consequences of type-A behavior, both life span and societal changes should be considered.
We investigated the associations of anger and cynicism with carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether these associations were moderated by childhood or adulthood socioeconomic status (SES). The participants were 647 men and 893 women derived from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Childhood SES was measured in 1980 when the participants were aged 3-18. In 2001, adulthood SES, anger, cynicism, and IMT were measured. There were no associations between anger or cynicism and IMT in the entire population, but anger was associated with thicker IMT in participants who had experienced low SES in childhood. This association persisted after adjustment for a host of cardiovascular risk factors. It is concluded that the ill health-effects of psychological factors such as anger may be more pronounced in individuals who have been exposed to adverse socioeconomic circumstances early in life.
The psychosocial determinants of prediabetes are poorly understood. The aims of our study were (1) to analyse the association between perceived social support in young adulthood and fasting glucose levels and prediabetes in mid-adulthood in a cohort of healthy Finns, (2) to explore whether body mass index (BMI), inflammation or depression mediate this relationship, (3) and to examine the association between social support trajectory groups and fasting glucose.
A prospective design was used with an analytic sample of 1250 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline (1980) and aged 12-39 years when social support was measured. Fasting glucose and prediabetes were assessed 32 years after baseline. Linear and logistic regression was used to examine the association between social support and the outcome measures. A bootstrapping technique was used to examine mediation effects.
Social support was associated with future glucose levels in women after adjusting for childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and youth depression (ß = -0.136, p = 0.001) and also predicted prediabetes in women after adjusting for childhood SES (ß = 1.31, 95 % CI 1.02 to 1.69, p = 0.031). Both associations were attenuated after adjusting for BMI in mid-adulthood. BMI was found to mediate the relationship between social support and prediabetes in women (ß for indirect effect ß = 0.09, SE = 0.03, CI = 0.03 to 0.16).
Low perceived social support in young adulthood is associated with high fasting glucose and prediabetes in mid-adulthood in women but not men. The association between social support and prediabetes in women can be partly explained by BMI.
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2008 Dec;37(6):1220-618263651
Evidence on apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene as a vulnerability factor for depression is mixed. Polymorphisms of the APOE gene regulatory region may serve as additional explanatory factors, as they help in explaining variation of depressive symptoms within the APOE epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype groups. In this study, the associations of the APOE gene promoter polymorphisms -219G/T and +113G/C and their haplotypes with depressive symptoms were examined.
The data is from a subpopulation of 660 young adults (24-39 years old) of the ongoing population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a revised version of Beck's Depression Inventory. Clinical screening assessed lipid levels and other known physiological and behavioral risk factors for depressive symptoms.
The APOE epsilon4 allele was not related to depressive symptoms. Similarly, no statistically significant associations were found between the APOE gene promoter -219G/T and +113G/C polymorphisms and depressive symptoms. Within theAPOE epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype subgroup (n = 373), carriers of both -219G/+113C and -219T/+113G haplotypes (GC/TG) had higher depressive symptoms compared to noncarriers of these haplotypes (2.52 vs. 1.98; p = 0.002). This relationship persisted after separate adjustments for various risk factors including sex, age, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and alcohol consumption.
Our results suggest that the APOE gene does not predispose carriers to depressive symptoms among healthy young adults. However, the promoter haplotype GC/TG may elevate the risk of depressive symptoms.
Well-being consists of affective and non-affective components. Personality traits measure individual differences in adaptive functioning and mental health. In a previous Israeli study personality was strongly associated with well-being. However, it is not well known which aspects of this association are culture-specific, and which are common to most cultures.
1940 volunteer participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns (CRYF) study completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (PSS). Questions about positive and negative affect, satisfaction with life, and subjective health were also included. Multidimensional personality profiles were used to evaluate the linear and non-linear effects of interactions among dimensions on different aspects of well-being.
Self-directedness was strongly associated with all aspects of well-being regardless of interactions with other dimensions. Cooperativeness was also associated with several aspects of well-being but especially strongly with perceived social support. Self-transcendence was associated with both positive and negative affect when the influence of the other character dimensions was taken into account. Personality explained half the variance in non-affective well-being and two thirds of the variance in affective well-being.
The same assessment instruments were not used in the two countries we compared. Our data were cross-sectional.
Self-directedness and Cooperativeness are positively associated with well-being regardless of culture. The effect of Self-transcendence, however, seems to be culture-specific. Self-transcendence increases positive affect but, based on culture, it can also increase negative affect.
To study emotional distress in symptomatic and asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers who had experienced a recent stressful life event. The participants were 209 symptomatic and 279 asymptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers. Emotional distress was assessed with the Cope questionnaire and stressful life events with the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Symptomatic long QT syndrome mutation carriers with burdening recent stressful life events reported a higher emotional distress (ß = 0.35, p
To explore the relationship between burnout and behavior-related health risk factors.
We collected data from a population-based sample (n = 3264) through interviews, questionnaires, and health examinations. Burnout was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity were self-reported. Obesity was based on measurements at screening.
Burnout and exhaustion were associated with a higher likelihood of risk factors. More specifically, burnout syndrome was related to low physical activity and obesity, exhaustion dimension to low physical activity and heavy drinking, cynicism dimension to low physical activity, and diminished professional efficacy to low physical activity, obesity, and lower likelihood of heavy drinking.
Improving working conditions and psychoeducation on recommended ways of coping and recovery could help to prevent negative health consequences of chronic work stress.