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Source
J Affect Disord. 2009 Sep;117(1-2):24-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Lars Vedel Kessing
Lars Søndergård
Julie Lyng Forman
Per Kragh Andersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. lars.kessing@rh.dk
Source
J Affect Disord. 2009 Sep;117(1-2):24-9
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Alzheimer Disease - drug therapy - epidemiology
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Comorbidity
Dementia - epidemiology - prevention & control
Denmark - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - drug therapy - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Registries
Risk
Time
Abstract
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that antidepressants may have neuroprotective abilities but it has newer been investigated lately whether treatment with antidepressants reduces the risk of dementia. METHOD: Linkage of registers of all prescribed antidepressants and diagnoses of dementia in Denmark during a period from 1995 to 2005. RESULTS: Persons who purchased antidepressants once (N=687,552) had an increased rate of dementia compared to persons unexposed to antidepressants (N=779,831). Nevertheless, the rate of dementia changed over time; thus during the initial prescription periods the rate increased with the number of prescriptions but continued long-term antidepressants treatment was associated with a reduction in the rate of dementia, however, not to the same level as the rate for the general population. This pattern was found for all classes of antidepressants (SSRIs, newer non-SSRI antidepressants and older antidepressants). All findings were replicated in sub-analyses with Alzheimer's disease as outcome. LIMITATIONS: Methodological reasons for the findings cannot be excluded due to the non-randomized nature of data. CONCLUSIONS: Continued long-term antidepressant treatment was associated with a reduced rate of dementia, however, not to the same level as the rate for the general population.
PubMed ID
19138799 View in PubMed
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Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282264
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 01;73(11):1154-1162
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-01-2016
Author
Charlotte Wessel Skovlund
Lina Steinrud Mørch
Lars Vedel Kessing
Øjvind Lidegaard
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 01;73(11):1154-1162
Date
Nov-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Cohort Studies
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal - adverse effects
Denmark
Depressive Disorder - chemically induced
Female
Humans
Prospective Studies
Statistics as Topic
Young Adult
Abstract
Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed.
To investigate whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital.
This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register and the Psychiatric Central Research Register in Denmark. All women and adolescents aged 15 to 34 years who were living in Denmark were followed up from January 1, 2000, to December 2013, if they had no prior depression diagnosis, redeemed prescription for antidepressants, other major psychiatric diagnosis, cancer, venous thrombosis, or infertility treatment. Data were collected from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2013, and analyzed from January 1, 2015, through April 1, 2016.
Use of different types of hormonal contraception.
With time-varying covariates, adjusted incidence rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for first use of an antidepressant and first diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital.
A total of 1?061?997 women (mean [SD] age, 24.4 [0.001] years; mean [SD] follow-up, 6.4 [0.004] years) were included in the analysis. Compared with nonusers, users of combined oral contraceptives had an RR of first use of an antidepressant of 1.23 (95% CI, 1.22-1.25). Users of progestogen-only pills had an RR for first use of an antidepressant of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.27-1.40); users of a patch (norgestrolmin), 2.0 (95% CI, 1.76-2.18); users of a vaginal ring (etonogestrel), 1.6 (95% CI, 1.55-1.69); and users of a levonorgestrel intrauterine system, 1.4 (95% CI, 1.31-1.42). For depression diagnoses, similar or slightly lower estimates were found. The relative risks generally decreased with increasing age. Adolescents (age range, 15-19 years) using combined oral contraceptives had an RR of a first use of an antidepressant of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.75-1.84) and those using progestin-only pills, 2.2 (95% CI, 1.99-2.52). Six months after starting use of hormonal contraceptives, the RR of antidepressant use peaked at 1.4 (95% CI, 1.34-1.46). When the reference group was changed to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71).
Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first diagnosis of depression, suggesting depression as a potential adverse effect of hormonal contraceptive use.
PubMed ID
27680324 View in PubMed
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Association of Lithium in Drinking Water With the Incidence of Dementia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286257
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 01;74(10):1005-1010
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-01-2017
Author
Lars Vedel Kessing
Thomas Alexander Gerds
Nikoline Nygård Knudsen
Lisbeth Flindt Jørgensen
Søren Munch Kristiansen
Denitza Voutchkova
Vibeke Ernstsen
Jörg Schullehner
Birgitte Hansen
Per Kragh Andersen
Annette Kjær Ersbøll
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 01;74(10):1005-1010
Date
Oct-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alzheimer Disease - diagnosis - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Dementia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Dementia, Vascular - diagnosis - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Drinking Water - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Lithium - analysis
Male
Statistics as Topic
Time
Abstract
Results from animal and human studies suggest that lithium in therapeutic doses may improve learning and memory and modify the risk of developing dementia. Additional preliminary studies suggest that subtherapeutic levels, including microlevels of lithium, may influence human cognition.
To investigate whether the incidence of dementia in the general population covaries with long-term exposure to microlevels of lithium in drinking water.
This Danish nationwide, population-based, nested case-control study examined longitudinal, individual geographic data on municipality of residence and data from drinking water measurements combined with time-specific data from all patients aged 50 to 90 years with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of dementia from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 2013, and 10 age- and sex-matched control individuals from the Danish population. The mean lithium exposure in drinking water since 1986 was estimated for all study individuals. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2013.
A diagnosis of dementia in a hospital inpatient or outpatient contact. Diagnoses of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia were secondary outcome measures. In primary analyses, distribution of lithium exposure was compared between patients with dementia and controls.
A total of 73?731 patients with dementia and 733?653 controls (median age, 80.3 years; interquartile range, 74.9-84.6 years; 44 760 female [60.7%] and 28 971 male [39.3%]) were included in the study. Lithium exposure was statistically significantly different between patients with a diagnosis of dementia (median, 11.5 µg/L; interquartile range, 6.5-14.9 µg/L) and controls (median, 12.2 µg/L; interquartile range, 7.3-16.0 µg/L; P?
PubMed ID
28832877 View in PubMed
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Causes of decreased life expectancy over the life span in bipolar disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267910
Source
J Affect Disord. 2015 Jul 15;180:142-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-2015
Author
Lars Vedel Kessing
Eleni Vradi
Roger S McIntyre
Per Kragh Andersen
Source
J Affect Disord. 2015 Jul 15;180:142-7
Date
Jul-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bipolar Disorder - mortality
Cause of Death
Chronic Disease - mortality
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Life expectancy
Male
Mental Disorders - mortality
Middle Aged
Mortality, Premature - trends
Substance-Related Disorders - mortality
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the increased prevalence of comorbid general medical illnesses in bipolar disorder.
To test the hypothesis that lost life years due to natural causes starts in early and mid-adulthood, supporting the hypothesis of accelerated aging.
Using individual data from nationwide registers of patient with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder we calculated remaining life expectancies before age 90 years for values of age 15, 25, 35…75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. Further, we estimated the reduction in life expectancy due to natural causes (physical illnesses) and unnatural causes (suicide and accidents) in relation to age.
A total of 22,635 patients with bipolar disorder were included in the study in addition to data from the entire Danish general population of 5.4 million people. At age 15 years, remaining life expectancy before age 90 years was decreased 12.7 and 8.9 life years, respectively, for men and women with bipolar disorder. For 15-year old boys with bipolar disorder, natural causes accounted for 58% of all lost life years and for 15-year old girls, natural causes accounted for 67% increasing to 74% and 80% for 45-year old men and women, respectively.
Data concern patients who get contact to hospital psychiatry only.
Natural causes of death is the most prevalent reason for lost life years already from adolescence and increases substantially during early and mid-adulthood, in this way supporting the hypothesis of accelerated aging. Early intervention in bipolar disorder should not only focus on improving outcome of the bipolar disorder but also on decreasing the risk of comorbid general medical illnesses.
PubMed ID
25909752 View in PubMed
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Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142598
Source
J Affect Disord. 2010 Dec;127(1-3):199-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Jens Drachmann Bukh
Camilla Bock
Maj Vinberg
Ulrik Gether
Lars Vedel Kessing
Author Affiliation
Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. jens.bukh@regionh.dk
Source
J Affect Disord. 2010 Dec;127(1-3):199-202
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Ambulatory Care - statistics & numerical data
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Depressive Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Personality Assessment - standards - statistics & numerical data
Personality Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Psychometrics
Registries
Abstract
Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use.
The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently, by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders.
We found, that a cut-off of 3 on the screen correctly identified the presence of comorbid personality disorder in 73.1% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 0.80 and 0.70, respectively.
The findings cannot be generalized to patients outside hospital settings.
The study provides evidence for the clinical utility of SAPAS as a screening interview for comorbid personality disorder in a population of patients with a primary diagnosis of depression.
PubMed ID
20579743 View in PubMed
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Cognitive deficits in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122388
Source
Neuropsychology. 2012 Sep;26(5):642-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Bo Jacob Hasselbalch
Ulla Knorr
Steen Gregers Hasselbalch
Anders Gade
Lars Vedel Kessing
Author Affiliation
Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. jacob.hasselbalch@regionh.dk
Source
Neuropsychology. 2012 Sep;26(5):642-51
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Attention - physiology
Cognition Disorders - etiology - psychology
Denmark
Depressive Disorder - complications - psychology
Educational Status
Executive Function - physiology
Female
Humans
Intelligence Tests
Linear Models
Male
Memory - physiology
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Psychomotor Performance - physiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Verbal Learning - physiology
Abstract
Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present.
Via the Danish registers (Civil Person Register, Danish Psychiatric Register) we identified individuals between 40 and 80 years of age with a diagnosis of unipolar disorder at their first discharge from a psychiatric hospital, and a gender- and age-matched control group. Particular emphasis was placed on assuring that patients were in a remitted state. Cognitive function was assessed with a broad range of neuropsychological tests.
A total of 88 patients and 50 controls were included in the study. In multiple linear regression analyses with simultaneous adjustment for age, gender, education level, premorbid IQ, and residual depressive symptoms, a diagnosis of unipolar disorder predicted lower performance on the Trail Making Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and on the Stroop test.
Cognitive deficits are present in patients with unipolar disorder in the remitted state. The deficits seem to reside more within the cognitive domain of attention than within other domains, and may be characterized by impairment of processing speed and cognitive flexibility.
PubMed ID
22823136 View in PubMed
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Combinations of Genetic Data Present in Bipolar Patients, but Absent in Control Persons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273873
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0143432
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Erling Mellerup
Ole A Andreassen
Bente Bennike
Henrik Dam
Srdjan Djurovic
Thomas Hansen
Martin Balslev Jorgensen
Lars Vedel Kessing
Pernille Koefoed
Ingrid Melle
Ole Mors
Thomas Werge
Gert Lykke Moeller
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(11):e0143432
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bipolar Disorder - genetics
Case-Control Studies
Cluster analysis
Denmark
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Humans
Models, Genetic
Models, Statistical
Norway
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Risk factors
Abstract
The main objective of the study was to find combinations of genetic variants significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In a previous study of bipolar disorder, combinations of three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes taken from 803 SNPs were analyzed, and four clusters of combinations were found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In the present study, combinations of four SNP genotypes taken from the same 803 SNPs were analyzed, and one cluster of combinations was found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. Combinations from the new cluster and from the four previous clusters were identified in the genomes of 209 of the 607 patients in the study whereas none of the 1355 control participants had any of these combinations in their genome.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26587987 View in PubMed
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Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146177
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Jan;198(1):39-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Maj Vinberg
Vibe Gedsoe Froekjaer
Lars Vedel Kessing
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. maj.vinberg@rh.regionh.dk
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010 Jan;198(1):39-44
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - etiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Mood Disorders - etiology - psychology
Personality Inventory
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving maladaptive coping styles may be a target for selective prevention focusing on subgroups at high risk of developing an affective disorder.
PubMed ID
20061868 View in PubMed
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Course of illness in depressive and bipolar disorders. Naturalistic study, 1994-1999.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45761
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Nov;185:372-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2004
Author
Lars Vedel Kessing
Mette Gerster Hansen
Per Kragh Andersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark. lars.kessing@rh.dk.
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2004 Nov;185:372-7
Date
Nov-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Bipolar Disorder - drug therapy
Depressive Disorder - drug therapy
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient compliance
Recurrence - prevention & control
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Newer antidepressants have increasingly been used during the past decade. These drugs may increase compliance and reduce the risk of cycle acceleration in affective disorders. AIMS: To investigate the naturalistic longitudinal course of illness in patients with depressive or bipolar disorder following the use of recently introduced drugs. METHOD: The rates of relapse leading to hospitalisation after successive episodes were calculated in a case register study including all hospital admissions of patients with primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1994-1999. Altogether, 9417 patients had a diagnosis of depressive disorder and 1106 patients had a diagnosis of mania or bipolar disorder, at first-ever discharge. RESULTS: The rate of relapse leading to hospitalisation increased with the number of previous episodes in both depressive and bipolar disorders. However, the effect of episodes was not significant for men. The rate of relapse did not decline during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The course of severe depressive and bipolar disorders has remained roughly the same despite introduction of new treatments.
PubMed ID
15516544 View in PubMed
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Daily electronic monitoring of subjective and objective measures of illness activity in bipolar disorder using smartphones--the MONARCA II trial protocol: a randomized controlled single-blind parallel-group trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263783
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:309
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Maria Faurholt-Jepsen
Maj Vinberg
Mads Frost
Ellen Margrethe Christensen
Jakob Bardram
Lars Vedel Kessing
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2014;14:309
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bipolar Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Cell Phones - utilization
Communication
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Participation - methods - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Quality of Life - psychology
Research Design
Self Care - methods - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Severity of Illness Index
Single-Blind Method
Social Behavior
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Patients with bipolar disorder often show decreased adherence with mood stabilizers and frequently interventions on prodromal depressive and manic symptoms are delayed. Recently, the MONARCA I randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of electronic self-monitoring using smartphones on depressive and manic symptoms. The findings suggested that patients using the MONARCA system had more sustained depressive symptoms than patients using a smartphone for normal communicative purposes, but had fewer manic symptoms during the trial. It is likely that the ability of these self-monitored measures to detect prodromal symptoms of depression and mania may be insufficient compared to automatically generated objective data on measures of illness activity such as phone usage, social activity, physical activity, and mobility. The Monsenso system, for smartphones integrating subjective and objective measures of illness activity was developed and will be tested in the present trial.
The MONARCA II trial uses a randomized controlled single-blind parallel-group design. Patients with bipolar disorder according to ICD-10 who previously have been treated at the Copenhagen Clinic for Affective Disorder, Denmark are included and randomized to either daily use of the Monsenso system including an feedback loop between patients and clinicians (the intervention group) or to the use of a smartphone for normal communicative purposes (the control group) for a 9-month trial period. The trial was started in September 2014 and recruitment is ongoing. The outcomes are: differences in depressive and manic symptoms; rate of depressive and manic episodes (primary); automatically generated objective data on measures of illness activity; number of days hospitalized; psychosocial functioning (secondary); perceived stress; quality of life; self-rated depressive symptoms; self-rated manic symptoms; recovery; empowerment and adherence to medication (tertiary) between the intervention group and the control group during the trial. Ethical permission has been obtained. Positive, neutral and negative findings will be published.
If the system is effective in reducing depressive and/or manic symptoms (and other symptoms of bipolar disorder) and the rate of episodes, there will be basis for extending the use to the treatment of bipolar disorder in general and in larger scale.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02221336. Registered 26th of September 2014.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25420431 View in PubMed
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61 records – page 1 of 7.