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Bromoanisoles and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers in macroalgae from Nordic coastal regions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301914
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2019 May 22; 21(5):881-892
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-22-2019
Author
Terry F Bidleman
Agneta Andersson
Sonia Brugel
Lars Ericson
Peter Haglund
Darya Kupryianchyk
Danny C P Lau
Per Liljelind
Lisa Lundin
Anders Tysklind
Mats Tysklind
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry, Umeå University (UmU), SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. terry.bidleman@umu.se.
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2019 May 22; 21(5):881-892
Date
May-22-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Anisoles - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Halogenation
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - analysis
Norway
Oceans and Seas
Seaweed - chemistry
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Marine macroalgae are used worldwide for human consumption, animal feed, cosmetics and agriculture. In addition to beneficial nutrients, macroalgae contain halogenated natural products (HNPs), some of which have toxic properties similar to those of well-known anthropogenic contaminants. Sixteen species of red, green and brown macroalgae were collected in 2017-2018 from coastal waters of the northern Baltic Sea, Sweden Atlantic and Norway Atlantic, and analyzed for bromoanisoles (BAs) and methoxylated bromodiphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs). Target compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-LRMS), with qualitative confirmation in selected species by GC-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Quantified compounds were 2,4-diBA, 2,4,6-triBA, 2'-MeO-BDE68, 6-MeO-BDE47, and two tribromo-MeO-BDEs and one tetrabromo-MeO-BDE with unknown bromine substituent positions. Semiquantitative results for pentabromo-MeO-BDEs were also obtained for a few species by GC-HRMS. Three extraction methods were compared; soaking in methanol, soaking in methanol-dichloromethane, and blending with mixed solvents. Extraction yields of BAs did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) with the three methods and the two soaking methods gave equivalent yields of MeO-BDEs. Extraction efficiencies of MeO-BDEs were significantly lower using the blend method (p 1000 pg g-1 ww were Ascophyllum nodosum, Ceramium tenuicorne, Ceramium virgatum, Fucus radicans, Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata, and Acrosiphonia/Spongomorpha sp. Species A. nodosum, C. tenuicorne, Chara virgata, F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (Sweden Atlantic only) had ?5MeO-BDEs >100 pg g-1 ww. Profiles of individual compounds showed distinct differences among species and locations.
PubMed ID
31032511 View in PubMed
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Climate change accelerates local disease extinction rates in a long-term wild host-pathogen association.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297416
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 08; 24(8):3526-3536
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2018
Author
Jiasui Zhan
Lars Ericson
Jeremy J Burdon
Author Affiliation
State Key Laboratory for Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 08; 24(8):3526-3536
Date
08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Basidiomycota - physiology
Climate change
Extinction, Biological
Filipendula - microbiology
Global warming
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Plant Diseases - microbiology
Population Dynamics
Seasons
Sweden
Abstract
Pathogens are a significant component of all plant communities. In recent years, the potential for existing and emerging pathogens of agricultural crops to cause increased yield losses as a consequence of changing climatic patterns has raised considerable concern. In contrast, the response of naturally occurring, endemic pathogens to a warming climate has received little attention. Here, we report on the impact of a signature variable of global climate change - increasing temperature - on the long-term epidemiology of a natural host-pathogen association involving the rust pathogen Triphragmium ulmariae and its host plant Filipendula ulmaria. In a host-pathogen metapopulation involving approximately 230 host populations growing on an archipelago of islands in the Gulf of Bothnia we assessed changes in host population size and pathogen epidemiological measures over a 25-year period. We show how the incidence of disease and its severity declines over that period and most importantly demonstrate a positive association between a long-term trend of increasing extinction rates in individual pathogen populations of the metapopulation and increasing temperature. Our results are highly suggestive that changing climatic patterns, particularly mean monthly growing season (April-November) temperature, are markedly influencing the epidemiology of plant disease in this host-pathogen association. Given the important role plant pathogens have in shaping the structure of communities, changes in the epidemiology of pathogens have potentially far-reaching impacts on ecological and evolutionary processes. For these reasons, it is essential to increase understanding of pathogen epidemiology, its response to warming, and to invoke these responses in forecasts for the future.
PubMed ID
29485725 View in PubMed
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Geographic variation and trade-offs in parasitoid virulence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286146
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2016 Nov;85(6):1595-1604
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Lisa Fors
Robert Markus
Ulrich Theopold
Lars Ericson
Peter A Hambäck
Source
J Anim Ecol. 2016 Nov;85(6):1595-1604
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Beetles - immunology - parasitology
Biological Evolution
Female
Host-Parasite Interactions
Immunity, Innate
Larva - immunology - parasitology - physiology
Phylogeny
Sweden
Wasps - physiology
Abstract
Host-parasitoid systems are characterized by a continuous development of new defence strategies in hosts and counter-defence mechanisms in parasitoids. This co-evolutionary arms race makes host-parasitoid systems excellent for understanding trade-offs in host use caused by evolutionary changes in host immune responses and parasitoid virulence. However, knowledge obtained from natural host-parasitoid systems on such trade-offs is still limited. In this study, the aim was to examine trade-offs in parasitoid virulence in Asecodes parviclava (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) when attacking three closely related beetles: Galerucella pusilla, Galerucella calmariensis and Galerucella tenella (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A second aim was to examine whether geographic variation in parasitoid infectivity or host immune response could explain differences in parasitism rate between northern and southern sites. More specifically, we wanted to examine whether the capacity to infect host larvae differed depending on the previous host species of the parasitoids and if such differences were connected to differences in the induction of host immune systems. This was achieved by combining controlled parasitism experiments with cytological studies of infected larvae. Our results reveal that parasitism success in A.?parviclava differs both depending on previous and current host species, with a higher virulence when attacking larvae of the same species as the previous host. Virulence was in general high for parasitoids from G.?pusilla and low for parasitoids from G.?calmariensis. At the same time, G.?pusilla larvae had the strongest immune response and G.?calmariensis the weakest. These observations were linked to changes in the larval hemocyte composition, showing changes in cell types important for the encapsulation process in individuals infected by more or less virulent parasitoids. These findings suggest ongoing evolution in parasitoid virulence and host immune response, making the system a strong candidate for further studies on host race formation and speciation.
PubMed ID
27476800 View in PubMed
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Herbivory strongly influences among-population variation in reproductive output of Lythrum salicaria in its native range.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277448
Source
Oecologia. 2016 Apr;180(4):1159-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Lina Lehndal
Peter A Hambäck
Lars Ericson
Jon Ågren
Source
Oecologia. 2016 Apr;180(4):1159-71
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Ecosystem
Female
Flowers - growth & development
Herbivory
Insects
Lythrum - growth & development
Plant Leaves
Reproduction
Seeds - growth & development
Sweden
Abstract
Herbivory can negatively affect several components of plant reproduction. Yet, because of a lack of experimental studies involving multiple populations, the extent to which differences in herbivory contribute to among-population variation in plant reproductive success is poorly known. We experimentally determined the effects of insect herbivory on reproductive output in nine natural populations of the perennial herb Lythrum salicaria along a disturbance gradient in an archipelago in northern Sweden, and we quantified among-population differentiation in resistance to herbivory in a common-garden experiment in the same area. The intensity of leaf herbivory varied >500-fold and mean female reproductive success >400-fold among the study populations. The intensity of herbivory was lowest in populations subject to strong disturbance from ice and wave action. Experimental removal of insect herbivores showed that the effect of herbivory on female reproductive success was correlated with the intensity of herbivory and that differences in insect herbivory could explain much of the among-population variation in the proportion of plants flowering and seed production. Population differentiation in resistance to herbivory was limited. The results demonstrate that the intensity of herbivory is a major determinant of flowering and seed output in L. salicaria, but that differences in herbivory are not associated with differences in plant resistance at the spatial scale examined. They further suggest that the physical disturbance regime may strongly influence the performance and abundance of perennial herbs and patterns of selection not only because of its effect on interspecific competition, but also because of effects on interactions with specialized herbivores.
Notes
Erratum In: Oecologia. 2016 Apr;180(4):1173-426873605
PubMed ID
26678991 View in PubMed
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