Physical activity appears to be inversely related to cancer risk, although the evidence is convincing for colon cancer only. As physical activity levels are difficult to measure in the general population, we aimed to investigate how physical activity influences cancer risk using a cohort of Norwegian world class athletes.
The cohort includes 3,428 athletes. Individual questionnaires gave information about physical activity and lifestyle variables until attained age. To elucidate the level of cancer risk, groups of athletes were compared to the general population (external comparisons) and to each other (internal comparisons).
A slightly reduced risk of total cancer was observed in the cohort of athletes, but stronger effects were observed for subgroups. The risk reduction was most pronounced for lung cancer and for leukemia/lymphoma. In women, a threefold increased risk of thyroid cancer was observed.
This cohort of athletes seems to have a reduced risk of cancer. The beneficial association, however, is weak and may be attributed to healthy lifestyle as well as to physical activity. Prolonged strenuous exercise may also increase the risk of thyroid cancer in women.
Long-term outcome after anterior cruciate ligament injury among top-level pivoting athletes is unknown.
To evaluate outcome among competitive team handball players after anterior cruciate ligament injury.
Prospective cohort study.
A previously studied group of 86 elite players who had an anterior cruciate ligament rupture were invited to participate in follow-up evaluations a mean of 7.8 years later.
Among the 57 operatively treated patients who returned for follow-up, 33 (58%) returned to team handball at their preinjury level, compared with 18 of 22 (82%) in the nonoperative group. Eleven of the 50 players (22%) who continued playing reinjured their anterior cruciate ligament when playing team handball. The overall Lysholm score was 85 +/- 13 in both groups, but the five players classified as poor were all operatively treated. Nearly half of the players had an International Knee Documentation Committee classification of abnormal or severely abnormal. There were significant differences between the injured and uninjured leg in functional (2.5% to 8%), strength (3.8% to 10.1%), and KT-1000 arthrometer tests (27%). In the operatively treated group, 11 developed radiologic gonarthrosis, compared with 6 in the nonoperatively treated group. There was no correlation between radiologic findings and pain scores.
A more restrictive attitude regarding return to competitive pivoting sports after anterior cruciate ligament injury may be warranted.
BACKGROUND: Many physicians have been uncertain about treatment options following reports that linked cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors to serious cardiovascular events and the subsequent withdrawal of two selective COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, on June 14, 2005, the Norwegian Medicines Agency and the Department of Pharmacotherapeutics, University of Oslo, held an expert meeting on COX inhibitors. METHODS: Presentations and discussions based on existing literature and statements from European (EMEA) and American (FDA) medicine authorities. This constitutes the basis for the current recommendations. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: COX inhibitors have solely symptomatic effects, and there are no differences in analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy between the various COX-inhibitors. These drugs should, if possible, be used at the lowest effective dose and for as short a time as possible. Some of the COX-2 selective inhibitors show a lower incidence of gastrointestinal side effects than unselective COX inhibitors, but this advantage can be outweighed by increased occurrence of cardiovascular side effects. Generally, the cardiovascular adverse effects are more serious, and more often irreversible, than the gastrointestinal adverse effects. Patients with established or increased risk of cardiovascular disease should not use COX-2-selective inhibitors. In general, COX inhibitors should, if possible, not be administered to individuals with previous peptic ulcer disease, hypertension, heart failure, or kidney disease. There is a need for more data on the effect and safety of COX inhibitors.
Joint registries have demonstrated value as a resource for the study of large numbers of patients, providing the opportunity to study rare occurrences and identify early failures of surgical procedures. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction registries have been established in Norway and the U.S. In this study, we compared the preoperative characteristics of the Norwegian National Knee Ligament Registry (NKLR) and the Kaiser Permanente Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Registry (KP ACLRR) cohorts.
A cross-sectional comparison of the NKLR and KP ACLRR cohorts registered between 2005 and 2010 was performed. Aggregate level data including preoperative patient characteristics, mechanisms of injury, preoperative Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), intraoperative findings, and adjusted revision rates were shared between the two registries, and a descriptive analysis was conducted.
During the study period, 10,468 primary ACL reconstructions were entered in the NKLR and 10,394, in the KP ACLRR. The age at the time of surgery was similar between the two cohorts (twenty-seven years in the NKLR versus twenty-eight years in the KP ACLRR), although the KP ACLRR had a higher proportion of males (65% versus 58%, p < 0.001). The revision rate per follow-up year was 0.9% in the NKLR and 1.5% in the KP ACLRR. Soccer was the most common mechanism of injury in both registries (40.0% in the NKLR and 26.6% in the KP ACLRR). The preoperative KOOS was statistically different, but the difference was not clinically relevant (defined as a change of >10 points). A higher prevalence of meniscal tears was seen in the KP ACLRR (61% versus 49%, p < 0.001).
Baseline findings are so congruent between the NKLR and the KP ACLRR cohorts that comparisons between these two registries will likely provide information to the orthopaedic community that can be generalized.
The presence of an articular cartilage lesion in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees is considered a predictor of osteoarthritis.
This study was undertaken to evaluate risk factors for full-thickness articular cartilage lesions in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees, in particular the role of gender and the sport causing the initial injury.
Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.
Primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions prospectively registered in the Swedish and the Norwegian National Knee Ligament Registry during 2005 through 2008 were included (N = 15 783). Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate risk factors for cartilage lesions.
A total of 1012 patients (6.4%) had full-thickness cartilage lesions. The median time from injury to surgery was 9 months (range, 0 days-521 months). Male patients had an increased odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions compared with females (odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.42). In males, team handball had an increase in the odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions compared with soccer (odds ratio = 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-4.19). Among female patients, no sport investigated showed a significant decrease or increase in the odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions. The odds of a full-thickness cartilage lesion increased by 1.006 (95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.008) for each month elapsed from time of injury until anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction when all patients were considered, while time from injury to surgery did not affect the odds significantly in those patients reconstructed within 1 year of injury (odds ratio = 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.02). Previous surgery increased the odds of having a full-thickness cartilage lesion (odds ratio = 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.63). One year of increasing patient age also increased the odds (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.06).
Male gender is associated with an increased risk of full-thickness articular cartilage lesions in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees. Male team handball players had an increased risk of full-thickness lesions. No other sports investigated were found to have significant effect on the risk in either gender. Furthermore, age, previous surgery, and time from injury to surgery exceeding 12 months are risk factors for full-thickness cartilage lesions.
Effect of meniscal and focal cartilage lesions on patient-reported outcome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a nationwide cohort study from Norway and Sweden of 8476 patients with 2-year follow-up.
The effect of concomitant intra-articular injury on patient-reported outcome after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is debated.
To evaluate the effect of meniscal and articular cartilage lesions on patient-reported outcome 2 years after ACL reconstruction.
Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.
The study included all patients with primary, unilateral ACL reconstruction registered in the Norwegian and the Swedish National Knee Ligament Registry from 2005 through 2008 who had completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) Knee-Related Quality of Life subscale at a 2-year follow-up (mean ± SD, 2.1 ± 0.2 years) after surgery (n = 8476). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between each KOOS subscale (Pain, Other Symptoms, Activities of Daily Living, Sport and Recreation Function, Knee-Related Quality of Life) as the measure for patient-reported outcome and meniscal and cartilage lesions.
A total of 3674 (43%) patients had meniscal lesion(s), 1671 (20%) had partial-thickness (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS] grades 1-2) cartilage lesion(s), and 551 (7%) had full-thickness (ICRS grades 3-4) cartilage lesion(s). Multiple linear regression analyses detected no significant associations between meniscal lesions or partial-thickness cartilage lesions and the scores in any of the KOOS subscales at the 2-year follow-up. Full-thickness cartilage lesions were significantly associated with decreased scores in all of the KOOS subscales.
Patients with concomitant full-thickness cartilage lesions reported worse outcome in all of the KOOS subscales compared with patients without cartilage lesions 2 years after ACL reconstruction. Meniscal lesions and partial-thickness cartilage lesions did not impair patient-reported outcome 2 years after ACL reconstruction.
Effect on Patient-Reported Outcomes of Debridement or Microfracture of Concomitant Full-Thickness Cartilage Lesions in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Knees: A Nationwide Cohort Study From Norway and Sweden of 357 Patients With 2-Year Follow-up.
The treatment of concomitant cartilage lesions in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injured knees is debatable.
To evaluate the effect of debridement or microfracture (MF) compared with no treatment of concomitant full-thickness (International Cartilage Repair Society [ICRS] grades 3-4) cartilage lesions on patient-reported outcomes after ACL reconstruction.
Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.
Six hundred forty-four patients who underwent primary unilateral ACL reconstruction and had a concomitant full-thickness cartilage lesion treated simultaneously by debridement (n = 129) or MF (n = 164), or underwent no treatment (n = 351) of the cartilage lesion, registered in the Norwegian and Swedish National Knee Ligament Registries from 2005 to 2008 were included. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used to measure patient-reported outcomes. At a mean follow-up of 2.1 ± 0.2 years after surgery, 357 (55%) patients completed the KOOS. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of debridement or MF on the KOOS.
No significant effects of debridement were detected in the unadjusted or adjusted regression analyses on any of the KOOS subscales at 2-year follow-up. The MF treatment of the cartilage lesions had significant negative effects at 2-year follow-up on the KOOS Sport and Recreation (Sport/Rec) (regression coefficient [ß] = -8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], -15.1 to -1.5) and Knee-Related Quality of Life (QoL) (ß = -8.1; 95% CI, -14.1 to -2.1) subscales in the unadjusted analyses. When adjusting for confounders, MF had significant negative effects on the same KOOS subscales of Sport/Rec (ß = -8.6; 95% CI, -16.4 to -0.7) and QoL (ß = -7.2; 95% CI, -13.6 to -0.8). For the remaining KOOS subscales of Pain, Symptoms, and Activities of Daily Living, there were no significant unadjusted or adjusted effects of MF.
MF of concomitant full-thickness cartilage lesions showed adverse effects on patient-reported outcomes at 2-year follow-up after ACL reconstruction. Debridement of concomitant full-thickness cartilage lesions showed neither positive nor negative effects on patient-reported outcomes at 2-year follow-up after ACL reconstruction.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a structured warm-up programme designed to reduce the incidence of knee and ankle injuries in young people participating in sports. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. SETTING: 120 team handball clubs from central and eastern Norway (61 clubs in the intervention group, 59 in the control group) followed for one league season (eight months). PARTICIPANTS: 1837 players aged 15-17 years; 958 players (808 female and 150 male) in the intervention group; 879 players (778 female and 101 male) in the control group. INTERVENTION: A structured warm-up programme to improve running, cutting, and landing technique as well as neuromuscular control, balance, and strength. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The rate of acute injuries to the knee or ankle. RESULTS: During the season, 129 acute knee or ankle injuries occurred, 81 injuries in the control group (0.9 (SE 0.09) injuries per 1000 player hours; 0.3 (SE 0.17) in training v 5.3 (SE 0.06) during matches) and 48 injuries in the intervention group (0.5 (SE 0.11) injuries per 1000 player hours; 0.2 (SE 0.18) in training v 2.5 (SE 0.06) during matches). Fewer injured players were in the intervention group than in the control group (46 (4.8%) v (76 (8.6%); relative risk intervention group v control group 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.81). CONCLUSION: A structured programme of warm-up exercises can prevent knee and ankle injuries in young people playing sports. Preventive training should therefore be introduced as an integral part of youth sports programmes.
Intention to treat analysis of between group difference in change in knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS4), defined a priori as the mean score for four of five KOOS subscale scores (pain, other symptoms, function in sport and recreation, and knee related quality of life) from baseline to two year follow-up and change in thigh muscle strength from baseline to three months.
No clinically relevant difference was found between the two groups in change in KOOS4 at two years (0.9 points, 95% confidence interval -4.3 to 6.1; P=0.72). At three months, muscle strength had improved in the exercise group (P=0.004). No serious adverse events occurred in either group during the two year follow-up. 19% of the participants allocated to exercise therapy crossed over to surgery during the two year follow-up, with no additional benefit.
The observed difference in treatment effect was minute after two years of follow-up, and the trial's inferential uncertainty was sufficiently small to exclude clinically relevant differences. Exercise therapy showed positive effects over surgery in improving thigh muscle strength, at least in the short term. Our results should encourage clinicians and middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tear and no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to consider supervised exercise therapy as a treatment option.Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01002794).
The development of strategies to prevent illnesses before and during Olympic Games provides a basis for improved health and Olympic results.
(1) To document the efficacy of a prevention programme on illness in a national Olympic team before and during the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games (OWG), (2) to compare the illness incidence in the Norwegian team with Norwegian incidence data during the Turin 2006 OWG and (3) to compare the illness incidence in the Norwegian team with illness rates of other nations in the Vancouver OWG.
Information on prevention measures of illnesses in the Norwegian Olympic team was based on interviews with the Chief Medical Officer (CMO) and the Chief Nutrition and Sport Psychology Officers, and on a review of CMO reports before and after the 2010 OWG. The prevalence data on illness were obtained from the daily reports on injuries and illness to the International Olympic Committee.
The illness rate was 5.1% (five of 99 athletes) compared with 17.3% (13 out of 75 athletes) in Turin (p=0.008). A total of four athletes missed one competition during the Vancouver Games owing to illness, compared with eight in Turin. The average illness rate for all nations in the Vancouver OWG was 7.2%. Conclusions Although no definite cause-and-effect link between the implementation of preventive measures and the prevalence of illness in the 2010 OWG could be established, the reduced illness rate compared with the 2006 OWG, and the low prevalence of illnesses compared with other nations in the Vancouver OWG suggest that the preparations were effective.