BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to examine the height and weight in Nordic children during the years around World War II (WWII), and compare them with the nutritional situation during the same period. METHODS: Information on food consumption and energy intake were obtained from the literature. Anthropometric data were collected from the Nordic capitals and cover the period from 1930 to 1960 for ages 7-13 years. RESULTS: The greatest energy restriction took place in Norway (20%), followed by Finland (17%), while Sweden and Denmark had a restriction of 4-7% compared to pre-war levels. The most pronounced effect of WWII on height and weight is seen in Norwegian children, while some effect is observed for the youngest children in Finland. Little or no effect is seen in Sweden and Denmark. CONCLUSION: The Nordic children were affected by WWII in terms of a transient reduction in temporal trends in height and weight, and the magnitude of this decrease was associated with the severity of the energy restriction prevailing in the respective country during the war. These findings warrant further studies of the chronic diseases associated with height and weight for cohorts being in their growth periods during WWII.
Association between serum lipids and apolipoprotein E phenotype is influenced by diet in a population-based sample of free-living children and young adults: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a genetic determinant of coronary heart disease and lipid levels in several populations. We studied whether the association of apoE alleles with serum lipids varies with diet in a population of free-living young Finns. One thousand twelve subjects, aged 9-24 years, were studied as a part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in 1986. Serum lipid concentrations and apoE phenotypes were determined, and the composition of the diet was assessed by the 48-h recall method. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the intake of dietary saturated fatty acids (SAFA, g/1000 kcal) and cholesterol (mg/1000 kcal). Group one (high SAFA-cholesterol group) was formed from subjects belonging to the highest tertiles of both cholesterol and SAFA intakes (n = 175); group two (middle SAFA-cholesterol group) consisted of subjects belonging to the middle respective tertiles (n = 119); and group three (low SAFA-cholesterol group) consisted of subjects belonging to the lowest respective tertiles (n = 192). The statistical significance of the association of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration with apoE phenotype increased from the low SAFA-cholesterol group (P = 0.024 for total cholesterol and P = 0.015 for LDL-cholesterol, respectively) to the high SAFA-cholesterol group (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.00073, respectively). The middle SAFA-cholesterol group fell between these two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The effect of diet on blood lipids has been under intensive study during recent decades. However, diet in the context of the hyperapobetalipoproteinemia (hyperapoB) phenotype has received less attention. The hyperapoB phenotype is commonly encountered in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is defined as a combination of an increased concentration of apolipoprotein B (apo B), a normal concentration of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and as a result, a low LDL-C/apo B ratio. We studied the associations between diet and blood lipids in a cohort of 534 children and young adults 9 to 24 years old. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats (P/S ratio) correlated (r=-0.19, P
Association of serum lipids with metabolic control and diet were studied in 72 young subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Data on food consumption were collected by the 48-h recall method. Glycosylated haemoglobin (Hb) A1 was used as a measure of metabolic control. There were no differences between males and females in the mean values for serum total cholesterol (TC, 4.5 and 4.9 mmol/l, respectively), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, 2.7 and 3.0 mmol/l), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 1.3 and 1.4 mmol/l), or serum triglycerides (TG, 1.1 and 1.0 mmol/l). Diabetic subjects who were in better metabolic control (HbA1 or = 10.5%) had lower TC and TG values and a higher HDL-C/TC ratio. HbA1 level and intake of saturated fatty acids were positively associated with serum TC and LDL-C values and explained 14% and 15% of the variation in TC and LDL-C, respectively. HbA1 level and insulin dose per kg of body weight were positively associated with serum TG values and explained 30% of the variation in TG. Serum TC and LDL-C levels of young subjects with IDDM could be lowered by improving their metabolic control and decreasing their saturated fatty acid intake.
The paper describes the general outline of a multicentre study on the risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) and their determinants in children of various ages in different parts of Finland. The study was a cross-sectional one, and was carried out in 1980 in five university cities of Finland with medical schools and in 12 rural communities in their vicinity. The randomized sample included an equal number of boys and girls, aged 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years, and an equal number of urban and rural population in each area. The total sample size was 4,320 subjects, and of these 3,596 participated (83.1%). The families received before the medical examination of the child, questionnaires on the socioeconomic background the child's general health and development, the parents' and grandparents' health status, and the child's food and exercise habits. At the physical examination also a fasting blood sample (lipids, insulin, trace elements) was taken, a bundle of hair was cut for trace element analysis, and a 48-hour recall on food intake was obtained from every second subject. 19.5% of the children had in their history some long-term disease, allergic diseases being the most common. CHD and other cardiovascular diseases were significantly more frequent among the grandparents and parents in eastern than in western Finland. The study is meant to be a basis for a longitudinal study.
Relationships between parental socioeconomic status and CHD risk factors were examined in the Finnish Multicentre Study on Atherosclerosis Precursors comprising a material of 3,596 study subjects aged 3-18 years in five university cities and 12 rural communes. The work is based on the hypothesis that socioeconomic status has associations with important lifestyle factors related to the evolution of CHD risk factors. Although there is some indication that parental status variables correlate with CHD risk factors, the majority of the data point to the conclusion that socioeconomic status indicators have little relevance for children's CHD risk factor levels. The main exceptions to the above stated were the lower P/S ratio of the diet in farmers' children compared to the other socioeconomic groups in all age cohorts, and the higher serum total and LDL-cholesterol levels in the farmers' children as compared to the others in some age cohorts. The explanation to these findings is the dietary practice in farmers' households, full milk and butter being favoured instead of other milk types and vegetable margarine, respectively. Our findings illustrate the importance of the families' dietary habits with regard to certain CHD risk factors.
Fatty acid compositions of serum cholesteryl esters (CE) were analysed with gas chromatography from a total of 1,348 Finnish children. The study was a part of a comprehensive survey of atherosclerosis precursors among children, and included 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-old children and adolescents from five urban and twelve rural communities in Finland. In all age groups and both sexes, the mean percentages of linoleate (CE-18:2) were lower and those of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids higher in eastern rural areas than elsewhere. Eastern rural children also had significantly higher proportions of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in their serum CE's. The percentage of serum CE-18:2 parallels the P/S values obtained by a dietary survey from the same populations. The reason for higher percentages of the omega 3 fatty acids in rural communities cannot be explained by diet, and remains unclear.
A dietary survey was conducted in 1980 in connection with the Multicentre Study on Atherosclerosis Precursors in Finnish Children in five urban and 12 rural communes in various parts of Finland. 1,768 children aged 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 years were interviewed using the 48 hour recall method. Food consumption, and the intakes of energy and 49 nutrients were calculated. The intakes of energy and most nutrients increased in the successive age groups until the age of 15 years. There were only small differences in the diet of children belonging to different social classes. Protein accounted for 14% of total energy intake, fat for 38%, total carbohydrate for 48%, and sucrose for 10%. The ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the diet (P/S) was 0.24 for the whole material, which is higher than found in previous studies in Finland. The P/S ratio was higher in urban areas and West Finland than in rural areas and in East Finland. The share of fat of energy intake exceeded the recommendation given by the Ministry of Health and the P/S ratio was lower than recommended. The mean daily intakes of energy and vitamins met the recommendations. Of the mineral elements, the intakes of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and manganese were abundant. The intakes of iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum and chromium were lower than recommended in most age groups and the intakes of selenium and fluorine in all age groups. The large share of refined foods in the children's diet was the main reason for the low nutrient densities.
The concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I and B were determined in 1,341 3- to 18-year-old children and adolescents from five urban and 12 rural communities. The analyses were made with radial immunodiffusion. The mean concentrations (+/- S.D.) of apo A-I and apo B were 152 +/- 25 and 94 +/- 22 mg/100 ml, respectively. 3-year-old children had the highest apo B levels which then decreased with advancing age in both sexes. Boys tended to have lower levels of apo B than girls. Apo A-I concentration was significantly higher in the 9- and 12-year-old boys than in the other age groups but showed no age-bound trend in girls. The apo A-I to apo B ratio increased with age in both sexes. The concentration of apo A-I was significantly lower, and that of apo B higher, in children living in eastern Finland in comparison with those from the western part of the country. This difference and a higher HDL-cholesterol to apo A-I ratio in both sexes in eastern Finland may be associated with the regional differences in the prevalence of coronary heart disease in this country.
Breast feeding in infancy may be associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. We examined the association between breast feeding in infancy and arterial function and structure in adulthood in a population-based cohort of Finnish adults.
Noninvasive ultrasound was used to measure brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and carotid artery compliance (CAC) in 1667 young adults participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data on early nutrition.
Maximal FMD was higher in breast-fed men compared to formula-fed men (7.2+/-4.0 vs 5.9+/-3.4%, P=0.029) while no differences were seen between breast-fed and formula-fed women (8.9+/-4.5 vs 8.8+/-5.0%, P=0.84). In men, the multivariable correlates of FMD included the group variable for breast feeding (P=0.014), birth weight (P=0.043), waist circumference (P