The purpose of the study was to examine the 7-year stability of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures in the Canadian population.
The sample included 1,503 participants 7-69 years of age from the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey who were remeasured in Campbell's Survey of 1988. Both SBP and DBP were adjusted for the effects of body mass index (BMI) using regression procedures.
Interage correlations from baseline to follow-up ranged from -0.17 to 0.61 for SBP and from -0.22 to 0. 51 for DBP. With few exceptions, correlations were positive and significant, and were highest and most consistent in adulthood. Further, between 27 and 39% of participants in the upper or lower quintiles in 1981 remained there in 1988. There were few differences in adiposity between those who remained in the upper or lower quintiles and those who did not. One exception was that males who remained in the upper quintile of SBP had greater values for BMI, sum of skinfolds, and waist circumference at baseline. Among adults, the best predictor of future blood pressure was baseline blood pressure, which accounted for between 12 and 34% of the variance in follow-up blood pressure, followed by age, follow-up BMI, and, in females, baseline physical activity levels.
Blood pressure demonstrated low to moderate stability over 7 years in Canada, and baseline level of adiposity was related to the stability of SBP in males.
We investigated the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms and exercise training responses of resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). BP at rest and during submaximal (50 watts) and maximal exercise tests was measured before and after 20 wk of endurance training in 476 sedentary normotensive Caucasian subjects from 99 families. AGT M235T and ACE insertion/deletion polymorphisms were typed with PCR-based methods. Men carrying the AGT MM and MT genotypes showed 3. 7 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 (SE) mmHg reductions, respectively, in diastolic BP at 50 watts (DBP(50)), whereas, in the TT homozygotes, the decrease was 0.4 +/- 1.0 mmHg (P = 0.016 for trend, adjusted for age, body mass index, and baseline DBP(50)). Men with the ACE DD genotype showed a slightly greater decrease in DBP(50) (4.4 +/- 0.6 mmHg) than the II and ID genotypes (2.8 +/- 0.7 and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.050). Furthermore, a significant (P = 0.022) interaction effect between the AGT and ACE genes was noted for DBP(50); the AGT TT homozygotes carrying the ACE D allele showed no response to training. Men with the AGT TT genotype had greater (P = 0.007) diastolic BP (DBP) response to acute maximal exercise at baseline. However, the difference disappeared after the training period. No associations were found in women. These data suggest that, in men, the genetic variation in the AGT locus modifies the responsiveness of submaximal exercise DBP to endurance training, and interactions between the AGT and ACE loci can alter this response.
In the present investigation, we have attempted to identify regions of the genome in which "obesity genes" potentially reside using robust sib-pair linkage analysis. Data were collected on 1,628 individuals in 301 nuclear families residing in the environs of Québec City during the period 1978-1981. In addition to traditional blood group antigens and enzyme polymorphisms, several phenotypes in the obesity domain that are associated with increased morbidity were assessed, including measures relating to heaviness (i.e., the body mass index), body composition and nutrient partitioning (i.e., % body fat), and regional fat distribution without and with standardization for total fat mass (i.e., the sum of six skinfold thicknesses, and the ratio of the sums of trunk to extremity skinfold thicknesses). Three consistent patterns of potential linkage relationships with obesity phenotypes were revealed in these data, involving the marker loci adenosine deaminase, the Kell blood group antigen, and esterase D, which identify chromosomal regions 20q13, 7q33, and 13q14, respectively. Other potential linkages also were identified in the short arm of chromosome 1, interesting because of the presence of the db and fa loci on homologous regions of chromosome 1 in mouse and rat models of obesity, respectively. Each of the tentative linkage relationships reported here warrant follow-up using alternative methods and require replication in independent studies.
Apolipoprotein E phenotypes and plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels were determined in 435 individuals (233 men, 202 women) of French Canadian descent living in northeastern Quebec. This region is known for its high frequency of mutant genes responsible for rare genetic disorders. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were adjusted for age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference using regressions performed separately in men and in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The APOE allele frequencies in this population-based sample were 0.137, 0.749, and 0.114 for the *2, *3, and *4 alleles, respectively. APOE2 (APOE 2,2 and APOE 3,2) subjects had lower total and LDL cholesterol levels than APOE3 (APOE 3,3) subjects. In APOE4 (APOE 4,3 and APOE 4,4) men and postmenopausal women levels of total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher than in the corresponding APOE3 subjects. The *2 allele was also found to be associated with higher triglyceride levels in men and postmenopausal women. Men of the APOE4 group also presented lower HDL cholesterol levels. Although the impact of APOE polymorphism on blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in this French Canadian population is similar to what has been reported in other white populations, the frequency of the *2 allele is among the highest ever reported. This finding is discussed in terms of the founder effect characterizing the Quebec population.
UCP3 is a mitochondrial membrane transporter that is postulated to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis producing heat instead of ATP. Human UCP3 is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, which plays an important role in energy homeostasis and substrate oxidation. Therefore, UCP3 is a good candidate gene for obesity.
We analyzed, among 734 subjects from the Qu?bec Family Study, a new GA repeat microsatellite located in intervening sequence (IVS) 6 (GAIVS6) in UCP3 gene, and two already described restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) Y210Y(C-->T) and V102I(G-->A). Covariance analysis across genotypes for different adiposity, resting energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism variables was undertaken with age and sex, plus body fat and body mass for nonadiposity phenotypes, as covariates.
We found strong associations between GAIVS6 and body mass index (p = 0.0001), fat mass (p = 0.0005), percentage body fat (p = 0.0004), the sum of six skinfold thickness (p = 0.0001), and leptin level (p = 0.0001). Homozygote for the GAIVS6 240 bp alleles (15% frequency in QFS) showed higher adiposity than subjects with the GAIVS6 238 bp allele (70% in QFS). The exons, the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and the exon-intron junctions of UCP3 gene from subjects homozygote for either GAIVS6 238 bp or 240 bp alleles were sequenced in search for mutations. Variants 5'UTR-55C-->T and Y210Y(C-->T) were detected, whereas IVS4-36C-->T was uncovered, but no new exonic or splice junction mutation was observed. RFLP Y210Y(C-->T) was not associated to adiposity in QFS; V1021(G-->A) showed no variation.
Our results suggest that some alleles of UCP3 are involved in the etiology of human obesity.
To examine whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes.
We recruited 664 participants aged between 18 and 55 years. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Body mass index (BMI), weight and waist girth were recorded using standard procedures. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by electrical bioimpedance. Obesity was defined as having a BMI> or =30 kg m(-2) and a positive FHO (FHO+) as having at least one obese first-degree relative.
Two dietary patterns were identified; Western and Prudent. The Western pattern was mainly characterized by a higher consumption of refined grains, French fries, red meats, condiments, processed meats and regular soft drinks whereas the Prudent pattern was mainly characterized by a higher consumption of non-hydrogenated fat, vegetables, eggs and fish and seafood. Subjects in the top tertile of the Western pattern had higher BMI, weight, waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass than those in the lower tertile. In contrast, subjects in the top tertile of the Prudent pattern had lower BMI, weight, waist girth, fat mass, HDL-cholesterol levels, and lower triglyceride levels than those in the lowest tertile. Individuals in the upper tertile of the Western pattern were more likely to be obese (obesity was defined as having a BMI> or =30 kg m(-2)) (OR=1.82, 95% CI 1.16-2.87) whereas those in the upper tertile of the Prudent pattern were less likely to be obese (OR=0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.96). These latter significant associations were only observed among those with FHO+. No such association was observed among FHO- individuals.
Individuals having a high score of Western pattern were more likely to be obese and those having a high score of the Prudent pattern were less likely to be obese, and this is particularly among individuals with an FHO+.
Cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors are under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Human upstream transcription factor 1 gene (USF1) encodes for a transcription factor, which modulates the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that USF1 gene variants are associated with CVD risk factors in the Quebec Family Study (QFS). USF1 has been sequenced in 20 QFS subjects with high plasma apolipoprotein B100 (APOB) levels (>1.14 g/l) and small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles (> or =250.7 Angstroms and A, and exon 11 c.*187 C>T) as well as the c.-56 A>G polymorphism, were genotyped and analyzed in 760 subjects from QFS. Association studies showed that women with c.561-100 A/A and c.*187 T/T genotypes had more favorable adiposity indices (
Genetic and environmental influences on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) were examined in 371 French-Canadian families by using path analysis. Familial environment was estimated with environmental indices constructed from as many as 14 (of a pool of more than 100) correlates of blood pressure (BP). Approximately 20% of the variance in BP can be accounted for by the composite index, and the types of variables and the direction of their effects vary as a function of age and of the multivariate context. Path analysis of the family data suggests that genetic heritability is relatively high in children (from 0.49 for SBP to 0.56 for MBP) but much smaller in adults (from 0.08 for DBP to 0.18 for SBP). The proportion of variability explained by familial environment is estimated to be the same in children and adults and is much higher than reported to date (from 0.30 for SBP to 0.42 for DBP). In addition, sibships share significant nontransmitted environmental effects, and there is no evidence to suggest specific maternal effects in the aggregation of BP. Two unique findings emerge from this study. First, unlike in most earlier studies, we were able to arrive at the same parsimonious model for each of the BP variables. Second, the familial environment accounts for a substantial proportion of the variability in BP, which has been considerably underestimated in earlier studies.
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Cardiovascular risk factors in a French Canadian population: resolution of genetic and familial environmental effects on blood pressure using twins, adoptees, and extensive information on environmental correlates.
Genetic and environmental influences on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MBP) blood pressure were examined using an expanded version of a path model in which parents and their singleton, twin, and adopted offspring were incorporated, and which also included an environmental index as an estimate of the underlying familial environmental component. Estimates of genetic heritability are lower in parents (10-15%) than in offspring (40-50%). Cultural heritability was significant for SBP (0.31) and MBP (0.40), and an intergenerational effect was found for DBP, with higher estimates in parents (0.42) than in offspring (0.21). Marital resemblance was significant, and no support was found for differential maternal and paternal cultural transmission. Two novel results arising from this study are 1) gender-specific sibling effects, with greater female than male resemblance for SBP and MBP and the opposite pattern for DBP, and 2) the suggestion of extra twin resemblance arising on account of additional shared environments and resulting in greater like-sex than opposite-sex twin resemblance. The major conclusions drawn from this study are that 1) parameter estimates are stable with or without the use of extensive environmental indices, and 2) the addition of twins and adoptees did not significantly impact the results, with the exception of a possible influence of the adoptees in estimates of cultural heritability for DBP. Combining both these features (i.e., extended relatives and environmental indices) enables testing for additional sources of familial aggregation, which is not possible using the traditional nuclear family approach and results in a more accurate assessment of the relative roles of heredity and environment on blood pressure than has been previously possible.
The purpose of this project was to evaluate the potential of the downward hierarchical clustering analysis (DHCA) for studying genetic heterogeneity, i.e. differences in allele frequency in subpopulations, such as the 15 public health regions of the province of Québec (Canada).
The study relied on an anonymized sample of 1,680 individuals who had participated in the Québec Heart Health Survey in 1990-1991. The genotyping of 11 variants in 8 candidate genes known to be involved in chronic inflammatory diseases, namely asthma and cardiovascular diseases, was performed using the amplification refractory mutation system and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Only variants showing an allelic frequency >2% in the Québec Heart Health Survey (n = 8) were selected. DHCA techniques were then applied to model the geographical distribution of these 8 genetic variants in 15 Québec public health regions and to study genetic heterogeneity.
The DHCA allowed to group public health regions and gene variants on the basis of genetic variability. For both asthma and cardiovascular diseases, 3 significant clusters of public health regions and 1 cluster of gene variants were identified.
This study suggests that DHCA might be useful in studying genetic heterogeneity at the population level and for public health activities.