The sensitivity of Roche Cobas Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including the internal control (IC) programme to identify inhibition, was investigated on 3 different samples from women: (1) swab samples from the urethra and the cervix pooled in 2-SP transport medium, (2) swab sample from the cervix transported in a urine sample from the same patient, and (3) urine sample alone. Out of the 2412 patients, 193 (8.0%) were chlamydia positive and in 14 of these the results showed discrepancies between sampling methods. The sensitivity of PCR on urethra/cervix, urine/cervix and urine was 98.4% (190/193), 97.9% (189/193) and 93.3% (180/193) respectively. The higher sensitivity of PCR on urethra/cervix and urine/cervix as compared with urine alone was statistically significant. Without the IC, the sensitivity of PCR on urethra/ cervix, urine/cervix and urine would have been 95.9% (185/193), 94.8% (183/193) and 90.7% (175/193) respectively. Factors influencing the rate of inhibition were also studied.
Bystanders play a vital role in public access defibrillation (PAD) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Dual dispatch of first responders (FR) alongside emergency medical services (EMS) can reduce time to first defibrillation. The aim of this study was to describe the use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in OHCAs before EMS arrival.
All OHCA cases with a shockable rhythm in which an AED was used prior to the arrival of EMS between 2008 and 2015 in western Sweden were eligible for inclusion. Data from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) were used for analysis, on-site bystander and FR defibrillation were compared with EMS defibrillation in the final analysis.
Of the reported 6675 cases, 24% suffered ventricular fibrillation (VF), 162 patients (15%) of all VF cases were defibrillated before EMS arrival, 46% with a public AED on site. The proportion of cases defibrillated before EMS arrival increased from 5% in 2008 to 20% in 2015 (p