The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.
The treatment of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (PLWHAs) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) reduces tuberculosis (TB) morbidity. Despite a high TB burden and an expanding human immunodeficiency virus epidemic, Russia had limited data on the utility of the tuberculin skin test (TST) for LTBI diagnosis in PLWHAs.
To determine the prevalence and predictors of positive TSTs in PLWHAs in Orel Oblast.
A total of 150 consenting PLWHAs being followed up at the AIDS Center were administered a TST and a questionnaire for risk factors for LTBI. A positive TST result was defined as >or=5 mm induration.
Of the 150 subjects, 67% were male and 74% were aged 500 cells/ml, 36% were TST-positive. TST positivity varied inversely with CD4(+) cell count. Among PLWHAs with a history of injection drug use, the primary risk factor for HIV, 29 (31.9%) were positive.
A high proportion of tested PLWHAs had a positive TST and could benefit from preventive therapy (PT) to reduce the risk of TB. A TB control programme in Russia should therefore include TST screening among PLWHAs and PT, besides active TB case finding and treatment.
To determine factors associated with poor outcome and to document status of patients after recording of TB outcomes.
Retrospective review of prospective single cohort.
Among 192 patients, factors significantly associated with poor outcome in multivariate analysis include three or more treatment interruptions during the intensive phase of therapy and alcohol or drug addiction (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.3 and aOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.0-3.7). Previous treatment was associated with poor outcome, but only among smear-positive patients (aOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.3-7.3). Ten patients (5%) developed extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) during treatment; of 115 patients with at least 6 months of follow-up data after outcomes were recorded, 13 (11%) developed XDR-TB.
Interventions focused on supporting patient adherence during the intensive phase of treatment; the management of drug and alcohol addiction should be developed and studied. A substantial proportion of patients developed XDR-TB during and after treatment. Longer term follow-up data of patients treated for MDR-TB are needed to better inform programmatic policy.
Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is a rare cause for pediatric surgical consultation. The purpose of this study is to review the Montreal experience in the 1990s with RVT.
A retrospective chart review was conducted from 1990 through 1999.
Twenty-three cases were identified by Duplex ultrasound scan. Mean length of follow-up was 42 months. Eighty-three percent (83%) of cases were diagnosed within the first month of life. In utero thrombosis was suspected in 22% and was associated with caval thrombosis and factor V Leiden. Known risk factors were present in 87%. The "diagnostic triad" of flank mass, gross hematuria, and thrombocytopenia was present in only 13% at the time of diagnosis. Long-term renal function impairment was detected in 100% of those who did not receive heparin, and in 33% of those who did receive heparin. No patient required dialysis. One patient required nephrectomy for recurrent pyelonephritis.
RVT occurs more commonly than anticipated. Because the "classic" triad of signs usually is absent at presentation, the presence of either a flank mass, hematuria, or thrombocytopenia in a patient with risk factors should prompt investigation for RVT. Factor V Leiden is a risk factor for in utero RVT. Anticoagulation improves renal outcome. Patients with RVT require long-term follow-up.