Normal aging of the rodent heart results in prominent prolongation of the twitch. We tested the hypothesis that increased expression of beta-myosin heavy chain (MHC), as occurs in the normal aging process in the rodent heart, contributes to the prolongation of the twitch by depressing the kinetics of cross-bridge interaction. Using 3-, 9-, 21-, and 33-mo-old male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats, we examined both the rate of tension development (kCa) and unloaded shortening velocity in chemically skinned myocardium. Although kCa in all four age groups was dependent on the level of Ca2+ activation, both submaximal and maximal kCa were significantly slower in 9-, 21-, and 33-mo-old rats relative to 3-mo-old rats. Furthermore, unloaded shortening velocity was significantly reduced in 9-, 21-, and 33-mo-old rats compared with 3-mo-old rats. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that the aging-related increase in beta-MHC expression results in a progressive slowing of cross-bridge interaction kinetics in skinned myocardium, which most likely contributes to the overall aging-dependent reduction in myocardial functional capacity.
Genetic analyses are an important contribution to wildlife reintroductions, particularly in the modern context of extirpations and ecological destruction. To address the complex historical ecology of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) and its failed 1970s reintroduction to coastal Oregon, we compared mitochondrial genomes of pre-extirpation Oregon sea otters to extant and historical populations across the range. We sequenced, to our knowledge, the first complete ancient mitogenomes from archaeological Oregon sea otter dentine and historical sea otter dental calculus. Archaeological Oregon sea otters (n = 20) represent 10 haplotypes, which cluster with haplotypes from Alaska, Washington and British Columbia, and exhibit a clear division from California haplotypes. Our results suggest that extant northern populations are appropriate for future reintroduction efforts. This project demonstrates the feasibility of mitogenome capture and sequencing from non-human dental calculus and the diverse applications of ancient DNA analyses to pressing ecological and conservation topics and the management of at-risk/extirpated species.
The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of third molars from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Swedish survey.
This cross-sectional study involved the comparison of the only published data on third molar prevalence. The number of visible third molars in the NHANES of 2011 through 2012 were assessed in nonclinical settings by trained, calibrated dental hygienists and reported by age decade (approximately 5,000 patients). Similar data were reported for the Swedish population with data collected in clinical settings (approximately 700 patients). The primary outcome variable was the number of third molars (0 to 4); the predictor variables were age cohorts (20 to 29 through 70 to 79 yr). Outcome data were reported with descriptive statistics.
In the youngest cohort (20 to 29 yr), having no visible third molars was more likely in the US population than in the Swedish population (47 vs 2%, respectively). By 50 to 59 years, outcomes for no third molars were similar in the United States and Sweden (53 and 57%, respectively).
The presence or absence of third molars reported from the US and Swedish populations presented contrasting patterns, particularly in the younger cohorts. More comprehensive and detailed data are required in future surveys as population studies on third molars become more important for clinicians and other stakeholders.
To determine modifiable risk factors for nosocomial Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).
300-bed tertiary-care hospital.
Hospital inpatients present during the 3-month study period.
Case-patients identified with nosocomial CDAD over the study period were compared to two sets of control patients: inpatients matched by age, gender, and date of admission; and inpatients matched by duration of hospital stay. Variables including demographic data, comorbid illnesses, antibiotic exposure, and use of gastrointestinal medications were assessed for case- and control-patients. Conditional logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for nosocomial CDAD.
27 case-patients were identified and were compared to the two sets of controls (1:1 match for each comparison set). For the first set of controls, use of ciprofloxacin (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI 95], 1.2-24.8; P=.03) was the only variable that remained significant in the multivariable model. For the second set of controls, prior exposure to cephalosporins (OR, 6.7; CI 95, 1.3-33.7; P=.02) and to ciprofloxacin (OR, 9.5; CI 95, 1.01-88.4; P=.05) were kept in the final model.
Along with cephalosporins, prior quinolone use predisposed hospitalized patients to nosocomial CDAD. Quinolones should be used judiciously in acute-care hospitals, particularly in those where CDAD is endemic.
Domestic dogs have been central to life in the North American Arctic for millennia. The ancestors of the Inuit were the first to introduce the widespread usage of dog sledge transportation technology to the Americas, but whether the Inuit adopted local Palaeo-Inuit dogs or introduced a new dog population to the region remains unknown. To test these hypotheses, we generated mitochondrial DNA and geometric morphometric data of skull and dental elements from a total of 922 North American Arctic dogs and wolves spanning over 4500 years. Our analyses revealed that dogs from Inuit sites dating from 2000 BP possess morphological and genetic signatures that distinguish them from earlier Palaeo-Inuit dogs, and identified a novel mitochondrial clade in eastern Siberia and Alaska. The genetic legacy of these Inuit dogs survives today in modern Arctic sledge dogs despite phenotypic differences between archaeological and modern Arctic dogs. Together, our data reveal that Inuit dogs derive from a secondary pre-contact migration of dogs distinct from Palaeo-Inuit dogs, and probably aided the Inuit expansion across the North American Arctic beginning around 1000 BP.