A study on cancer incidence after kidney transplantation was performed using data of national transplant and cancer registries. Since 1964 up to 30 June 1997, 3440 kidney transplantations were performed on 2890 patients. From 1967 to 1997, 230 posttransplantation malignancies were found in 20,817 patient-years of follow up. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 3.33 compared to the general population. The SIR was highest in skin cancer (39.2). The SIRs were high in cancers of the lip (23.0), thyroid (8.08), kidney (8.0), lower urinary tract (3.2), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.8), ovary (3.9) and colon (3.9). Skin cancer and lymphomas had much higher SIRs in men than in women whereas lower urinary tract cancer had a higher SIR in women. During the first 10 follow up years, life-table analysis indicates a higher cancer risk in cyclosporine-treated patients, but this may be biased by their shorter follow up as the overall SIR was equal in both groups. This population study shows the increased incidence of cancer in the transplant population and points out the importance of cancer surveillance in the years following kidney transplantation.
The cancer incidence in all Finnish kidney-transplant recipients up to 1991 was studied. In 2090 patients 94 cancers were diagnosed, with a calculated incidence of 14.2% at 15 years' follow-up. The standardised incidence rate (SIR) compared with the entire Finnish population was 2.7, and it remained stable throughout the follow-up period. The SIR for skin cancer was 20, for thyroid cancer 11, and for kidney cancer, non Hodgkin lymphomas, cancer of the colon, bladder and female genital organs, 7, 6, 5, 4 and 3 respectively.
We studied the complications of gallstone disease in kidney transplantation patients and evaluated whether the screening and treatment of gallstones before acceptance to the kidney waiting list is relevant.
Complications of gallstone disease were evaluated in 1608 kidney transplantation patients on cyclosporine and long-term steroid treatment with median age 45.5 years, transplanted between 1990 and 2000. To evaluate the prevalence of cholecystolithiasis after kidney transplantation an abdominal ultrasound examination was cross-sectionally performed to a subgroup of 304 patients and the results were correlated to their serum lipid values, changes in BMI and use of statins.
Pre-transplant cholecystectomy due to cholecystolithiasis (prerequisite for acceptance to kidney waiting list) had been performed on 71 (4%) of the patients. Thirty (15%) patients with diagnosed post-transplant gallstones and four without gallstones developed biliary complications. There were 25 cases of cholecystitis of which three resulted in gallbladder perforations. Seventeen patients (50%) with biliary complications required urgent surgery and one (3%) patient died of post-operative complications. In the subgroup of ultrasound examination patients (median 7 years post-transplant follow-up) 81% of the patients had no gallstones and 9% of the patients had gallstones had developed after transplantation. Patients with pre-transplant gallstones were older (P
The clinical course of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in the current era is poorly described. We characterized the symptoms and outcome of all CMV infections in a large cohort of kidney transplant recipients. Among 1129 kidney transplant recipients transplanted between 2004 and 2011 in Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin and Helsinki University Hospital, 297 patients with CMV infection were characterized.
CMV disease occurred in 217/1129 patients (19.2%), and CMV infection in 297/1129 (26.3%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded in 58% and fever in 47% patients with primary CMV disease, compared to 46% and 27% patients with symptomatic CMV reactivation, whereas leukopenia or thrombocytopenia were seen in only 17-28% patients, and malaise in 9-10%. Tissue-invasive CMV gastroenteritis was confirmed in 11% and CMV pneumonia in only 1% of patients with CMV disease. Only 1 patient died because of CMV infection (mortality 0.3%). Virus-related factors or the use of secondary prophylaxis did not predict the risk of recurrence, which occurred in 33% patients.
In conclusion, CMV disease remains a common problem after kidney transplantation. Gastrointestinal symptoms were common, especially in patients with primary CMV infection, whereas bone marrow suppression, hepatopathy, or malaise were seen less frequently.
We assessed the effect of donor factors on the recovery and quality of cadaveric kidney transplant function. During 1991 to 2003, 2006 kidney grafts were derived from 1119 heart-beating donors in Finland. The annual mean age of donors increased from 33 to 46 years, with a significant decrease in the proportion of high-energy trauma and gunshot wounds and with an increased proportion of donors with coronary disease, hypertension, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation and surgical/radiological interventions before death. The transplant team's share of kidney retrievals increased from 50% to nearly 100%. In uni- and multivariate analyses all these factors had significant effects on the onset and quality of early graft function; however, this effect practically vanished by 1 year posttransplant. Of all studied donor factors, only donor cytomegalovirus (CMV) status significantly affected long-term survival, with donor CMV-positive grafts having 5% worse survival at 5 years. The 1-year graft survival improved from 90.9% to 96.2% and mean 1-year creatinine decreased from 121 micromol/L to 109 micromol/L during these 13 years, showing that the worsening trends in donors quality were compensated by improvements in other aspects of the process.
1. The half-life of kidney grafts performed at Helsinki University Central Hospital has tripled from 6.5 years in 1980-84 to 17.1 years in the 1990's. 2. Delayed graft function constitutes a significant determinant of later kidney graft survival. Five-year graft survival was 81% for patients with early graft function and 71% for those with DGF. 3. High (> 350 mg/L) early (10 +/- 2 days after transplantation) cyclosporine trough levels were associated with inferior long-term graft survival. The 5-year graft survival rate was 74% compared with 86% for patients with trough levels between 250-349 mg/L. 4. Posttransplant conversion of the crossmatch test against the kidney donor, especially in association with DGF, indicates a group with significantly worse prognosis. Among 76 patients who developed antidonor antibody after transplantation, half experienced an acute rejection within 100 days and the 5-year graft survival rate was 68% compared with 83% for non-converters.
Scandiatransplant is the Nordic organ exchange organization that has existed for 41 years by a close collaboration between transplant centers. It has been valuable to ensure the optimal usage of available organs for transplantation. Analyzing the database for the past 15 years (1995-2009) revealed that the fraction of organ donors in the age category 60 to 90 years has increased considerably. The number of retrieved organs from deceased donors increased for kidney, liver, and lungs but only slightly for hearts. In the last time period, the mean number of organs retrieved per deceased donor counting only those having a recipient increased to 3.7 for younger donors and to 2.6 from the older group. In 2009, the STAMP (Scandiatransplant acceptable mismatch program) was launched to help highly immunized kidney patients. In 2009, kidney transplantations exhibited for Norway, 60 per million people (pmp); more than 40 pmp for Sweden and for Denmark; approximately 35 pmp for Finland; and more than 20 pmp for the living donor kidney transplantations in Iceland. The best year ever within Scandiatransplant with respect to total number of organ transplantations from deceased and living donors was 2009.