The records of 21 patients treated for adenocarcinoma of the anal ducts between 1943 and 1982 were reviewed. The patients were followed until death or current status in April 1987. The median follow-up period was eight months (range, 3 to 144 months). Fifteen patients had an erroneous diagnosis made at first physician visit resulting in a median doctor's delay of 14 months (range, 3 to 24 months) before correct treatment was carried out. Nine of the tumors were localized perianally (ischiorectal space), seven anally, and five in a fistula-in-ano. Tumors localized anally were significantly smaller and had a significantly shorter history than perianally or fistula-in-ano localized tumors (P less than .05 for each localization). Three patients with anal tumors had their diagnosis made accidentally by routine histologic examination of an excised hemorrhoid. First examination revealed distant metastases in 13 patients and follow-up examination revealed regional or distant metastases in seven patients. Modes of treatment were wide local excision (N = 3), abdominoperineal resection (N = 3), colostomy (N = 9), and radiotherapy (N = 2). Twenty of the 21 patients died within 18 months due to the cancer. One long-term survivor was observed; the patient was alive 12 years after local excision of the tumor without evidence of recurrent disease. The crude five- and 10-year survival was only 4.8 percent.
As a model of high trophic level carnivores, sledge dogs were fed from 2 to 18 months of age with minke whale blubber containing organohalogen compounds (OHC) corresponding to 128 µg PCB/day. Controls were fed uncontaminated porcine fat. Thyroid hormone levels were assessed in 7 exposed and 7 control sister bitches (sampled at age 6-18 months) and 4 exposed and 4 control pups, fed the same diet as their mothers (sampled age 3-12 months). Lower free and total T3 and T4 were seen in exposed vs. control bitches beyond 10 months of age, and total T3 was lower through 3-12 months of age in exposed pups. A negative correlation with thyroid gland weight was significant for SDDT, as was a positive association with total T3 for dieldrin. This study therefore supports observational data that OHCs may adversely affect thyroid functions, and it suggests that OHC exposure duration of 10 months or more may be required for current OHC contamination levels to result in detectable adverse effects on thyroid hormone dynamics.
The attitude of the Danish population towards organ transplantation was examined by means of an interview study, executed by the Gallup Institute. From a sample population of 1391 persons above 18 years of age, 798 persons (70%) were interviewed, in the period April 24th to May 3rd 1992. When asked what they thought the general attitude toward transplantation was amongst the population, 65% answered "positive" or "very positive". The attitudes to three situations, namely to organ donation after the death of a parent, spouse or child was examined subsequently. Amongst those who had an opinion, 75% (72-76%) were positive and 25% (24-27%) were negative. The younger the interviewed person, the more positive the attitude. According to the Danish law the relatives can decide for or against organ donation if the deceased has not expressed her view on organ donation. In view of the general positive attitude of the population it is proposed that we introduce a system where every adult person is asked concerning his/her attitude, e.g. in connection with the yearly income tax form or renewal of the health insurance certificate.
Thirty-four patients with basal cell carcinoma of the anus were treated in Denmark between 1943 and 1974. The tumours were usually between 1 and 2 cm in diameter and localized to the anal margins. Three tumours had a diameter of 10 cm and extended into the anal canal. In one case the tumour had spread to the regional lymph nodes. Modes of treatment were wide local excision (27 patients), abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (4 patients), colostomy combined with radiotherapy (1 patient) and radiotherapy alone (2 patients). Local recurrence was observed in 8 cases. After retreatment (re-excision: 5 patients), excision of the rectum (1 patient) and radiotherapy (2 patients), no recurrences were observed in the follow-up period ( greater than 5 years). The crude 5-year survival rate was 72.6 per cent. The death rate was not higher than in the normal population of the same age and sex and no death was due to the basal cell carcinoma.
Predicting the consequences of environmental changes, including human-mediated climate change on species, requires that we quantify range-wide patterns of genetic diversity and identify the ecological, environmental, and historical factors that have contributed to it. Here, we generate baseline data on polar bear population structure across most Canadian subpopulations (n = 358) using 13,488 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified with double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD). Our ddRAD dataset showed three genetic clusters in the sampled Canadian range, congruent with previous studies based on microsatellites across the same regions; however, due to a lack of sampling in Norwegian Bay, we were unable to confirm the existence of a unique cluster in that subpopulation. These data on the genetic structure of polar bears using SNPs provide a detailed baseline against which future shifts in population structure can be assessed, and opportunities to develop new noninvasive tools for monitoring polar bears across their range.
The principles of evidence-based medicine are applicable to all areas and professionals in health care. The care provided by paramedics in the prehospital setting is no exception. The Prehospital Evidence-based Protocols Project Online (PEP) is a repository of appraised research evidence that is applicable to interventions performed in the prehospital setting and is openly available online. This article describes the history, current status, and potential future of the project.
The primary objective of the PEP is to catalog and grade emergency medical services (EMS) studies with a level of evidence (LOE). Subsequently, each prehospital intervention is assigned a class of recommendation (COR) based on all the appraised articles on that intervention, in an effort to organize the evidence so it may be put into practice efficiently. An LOE is assigned to each article by the section editor, based on the study rigor and applicability to EMS. The section editor committee consists of EMS physicians and paramedics from across Canada, and two from Ireland and a paramedic coordinator. The evidence evaluation cycle is continuous; as the section editors send back appraisals, the coordinator updates the database and sends out another article for review.
The database currently has 182 individual interventions organized under 103 protocols, with 933 citations.
This project directly meets recent recommendations to improve EMS by using evidence to support interventions and incorporating it into protocols. Organizing and grading the evidence allows medical directors and paramedics to incorporate research findings into their daily practice. As such, this project demonstrates how knowledge translation can be conducted in EMS.
BACKGROUND: To combine findings of normal mid-line echoes from TVS (trans-vaginal sonography) with cut-off levels for endometrial thickness, in order to examine the associated risk of abnormalities in the uterine cavity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Two center prospective study at a university clinic and a central hospital in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and fifty-five pre-menopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding, and indications for endometrial sampling or surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The thickness of the endometrium was measured, and the mid-line echoes were evaluated using TVS. The findings from the endometrial sampling, combined with the evaluation of the uterine cavity using operative hysteroscopy (115), hysterectomy (74) or HSE (hysterosonographic examination) (166), were used as the true values. RESULTS: The mean (+/-s.d.) endometrial thickness was significantly different in patients with hyperplasia 11.5 mm (+/-5.0), polyps 11.8 mm (+/-5.1), sub-mucous myomas 7.1 mm (+/-3.4) and in patients without these abnormalities 8.37 (+/-3.9) (p