OBJECTIVE--To assess risk behaviors, health problems, worries and concerns, and resiliency-promoting factors among American Indian-Alaska Native adolescents. DESIGN--Survey. SETTING--Nonurban schools from eight Indian Health Service areas. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 13,454 seventh- through 12th-grade American Indian-Alaska Native youths. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--revised version of the Adolescent Health Survey, a comprehensive, anonymous, self-report questionnaire with 162 items addressing 10 dimensions of health. RESULTS--Poor physical health was reported by 2% of the study sample and was significantly correlated with social risk factors of physical and/or sexual abuse, suicide attempts, substance abuse, poor school performance, and nutritional inadequacies. Injury risk behaviors included never wearing seatbelts (44%), drinking and driving (37.9% of driving 10th through 12th graders), and riding with a driver who had been drinking (21.8%). Physical and sexual abuse prevalence was 10% and 13%, respectively, with 23.9% of females reporting physical abuse and 21.6% of females reporting sexual abuse by the 12th grade. Almost 6% of the entire sample endorsed signs of severe emotional distress. Eleven percent of the teens surveyed knew someone who had killed himself or herself, and 17% had attempted suicide themselves. Sixty-five percent of males and 56.8% of females reported having had intercourse by the 12th grade. Weekly or more frequent alcohol use rose from 8.2% of seventh graders to 14.1% by the 12th grade; for males, the survey noted an increase in regular alcohol use of 3% to 5% a year to 27.3% by the 12th grade. For each variable measured, rates are much higher for American Indian adolescents than those for rural white Minnesota youth, except for age at first intercourse and alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS--American Indian-Alaska Native adolescents reported high rates of health-compromising behaviors and risk factors related to unintentional injury, substance use, poor self-assessed health status, emotional distress, and suicide. Interventions must be culturally sensitive, acknowledge the heterogeneity of Indian populations, be grounded in cultural traditions that promote health, and be developed with full participation of the involved communities.
Bivariate mixture modeling of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin concentration in Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, and whites in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study.
Bivariate mixture modeling was used to analyze joint population distributions of transferrin saturation (TS) and serum ferritin concentration (SF) measured in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study. Four components (C1, C2, C3, and C4) with successively age-adjusted increasing means for TS and SF were identified in data from 26,832 African Americans, 12,620 Asians, 12,264 Hispanics, and 43,254 whites. The largest component, C2, had normal mean TS (21% to 26% for women, 29% to 30% for men) and SF (43-82 microg/L for women, 165-242 microg/L for men), which consisted of component proportions greater than 0.59 for women and greater than 0.68 for men. C3 and C4 had progressively greater mean values for TS and SF with progressively lesser component proportions. C1 had mean TS values less than 16% for women (
Cites: Am Heart J. 2000 Jul;140(1):98-10410874269
Cites: Genet Test. 2000;4(2):183-9810953959
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Oct;72(4):963-811010938
Patients with hemochromatosis may suffer organ damage from iron overload, often with serious clinical consequences.
To assess prevalences of self-reported symptoms and clinical signs and conditions in persons homozygous for the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutation (C282Y) identified by screening.
Participants were adults 25 years of age or older enrolled in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study. C282Y homozygotes (n=282) were compared with control participants without the HFE C282Y or H63D alleles (ie, wild type/wild type; n=364).
Previously diagnosed C282Y homozygotes and newly diagnosed homozygotes with elevated serum ferritin levels had higher prevalences of certain symptoms such as chronic fatigue (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.34 to 5.95, and OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.07 to 3.75, respectively), and had more hyperpigmentation on physical examination (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.50 to 15.06, and OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.10 to 12.16, respectively) and swelling or tenderness of the second and third metacarpophalangeal joints (OR 4.2; 95% CI 1.37 to 13.03, and OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.17 to 9.49, respectively) than control subjects. Joint stiffness was also more common among newly diagnosed C282Y homozygotes with elevated serum ferritin than among control subjects (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.38 to 5.30). However, the sex- and age-adjusted prevalences of self-reported symptoms and signs of liver disease, heart disease, diabetes and most other major clinical manifestations of hemochromatosis were similar in C282Y homozygotes and control subjects.
Some symptoms and conditions associated with hemochromatosis were more prevalent among C282Y homozygotes identified by screening than among control subjects, but prevalences of most outcomes were similar in C282Y homozygotes and controls in this primary care-based study.
The evolving pattern of symptomatic coronary artery disease in the United States and Canada: baseline characteristics of the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial.
Major improvements in medical therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease (CAD) have emerged during the previous 2 decades, but no randomized trial in patients with stable CAD has been powered to compare these 2 strategies for the hard clinical end points of death or myocardial infarction (MI), and previous studies have not evaluated the effect of coronary stents and intensive medical therapy on cardiac events during long-term follow-up. Between 1999 and 2004, 2,287 patients with documented myocardial ischemia and angiographically confirmed CAD were randomized to the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial, with a principal hypothesis that a strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention plus intensive, guideline-driven medical therapy would be superior to a strategy of intensive medical therapy alone. The primary end point was a composite of all-cause mortality or acute MI (time to first event) during a 2.5- to 7-year (median 5) follow-up. Baseline characteristics were a mean age of 62 +/- 5 years, 85% men, and 86% Caucasian. Mean duration of angina before randomization was 26 months (average 10 episodes/week), and 29% of patients were smokers, 67% had hypertension, 38% had previous MI, 71% had dyslipidemia, 34% had diabetes, 27% had previous revascularization, and 69% had multivessel CAD. Approximately 55% of patients met established criteria for the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, baseline characteristics of the COURAGE trial study population indicate a highly symptomatic group of patients with CAD who have a significant duration and frequency of antecedent angina pectoris and a high prevalence of cardiac risk factors.
Comment In: Am J Cardiol. 2007 Nov 15;100(10):160418051252
OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between cardiovascular parameters and genotype in 205 F2 rats of both sexes and lineages from reciprocal crosses made between rats of the New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) and Brown Norway (BN) rat strains. METHODS: Systolic tail blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse rate, heart mass, body mass and relative heart mass were determined for each rat in the age range 17-19 weeks, and DNA polymorphisms were examined for the guanylyl cyclase A (GCA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and renin (REN) genes. RESULTS: The phenotypic data indicated the presence of genes on the X and Y chromosomes that affected blood pressure. The GH GCA allele, in males only, and the GH ACE allele, in females only, both cosegregated with increased blood pressure. The ACE effect was confined to rats of one lineage only, namely those with GH grandfathers. A cosegregation of the GH REN allele with decreased blood pressure was also detected in females with BN grandfathers. In contrast, the GH REN allele cosegregated with a smaller heart in males only, whereas the GH ACE allele cosegregated with a larger heart both in males and in females. In males this was the consequence of a decrease in body mass with no change in absolute heart mass, whereas in females there were changes in both of these parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that cardiac hypertrophy and blood pressure have independent genetic determinants in the GH rat, and indicate the importance of sex in determining the phenotypic expression of genes underlying cardiovascular pathology.
The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs.
The purpose of this study is to review indications, surgical procedures, and outcomes in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot referred for reoperation.
Sixty consecutive adults (age >/= 18 years) who underwent reoperation between 1975 and 1997 after previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot were reviewed. Mean age at corrective repair was 13.3 +/- 9.6 years and at reoperation 33.3 +/- 9.6 years. Mean follow-up after reoperation is 5.0 +/- 4.9 years.
Long-term complications of the right ventricular outflow tract (n = 45, 75%) were the most common indications for reoperation: severe pulmonary regurgitation (n = 23, 38%) and conduit failure (n = 13, 22%) were most frequent. Less common indications were ventricular septal patch leak (n = 6) and severe tricuspid regurgitation (n = 3). A history of sustained ventricular tachycardia was present in 20 patients (33%) and supraventricular tachycardia occurred in 9 patients (15%). A bioprosthetic valve to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract was used in 42 patients. Additional procedures (n = 115) to correct other residual lesions were required in 46 patients (77%). There was no perioperative mortality. Actuarial 10-year survival is 92% +/- 6%. At most recent follow-up, 93% of the patients are in New York Heart Association classification I or II. Sustained ventricular tachycardia occurred in 4 patients (7%) during follow-up.
Long-term complications of the right ventricular outflow tract were the main reason for reoperation. Mid-term survival and functional improvement after reoperation are excellent.