The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), as developed by Folstein, Folstein, and McHugh (1975), is the most widely used of cognitive screening tools. An examination of the psychometric properties of the MMSE seems warranted because the accurate and comprehensive assessment of mental status can yield profound implications for the quality of life of cognitively impaired older adults (Danner, Beck, Heacock, & Modlin, 1993). In clinical practice, nurses must not only use a valid and reliable screening tool for assessing cognitive impairment, but they must also assess the physical disabilities that may affect client performance and, hence, the cognitive impairment score. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the MMSE in comparison to a more standardized tool and to identify implications of the tool for clinical practice.
A life album is a collection of selected memorabilia, photographs, and archival and other material that describes an individual's life in a photograph book format. During a summer research program, 13 long-term care residents created life albums that contained material from their past and current life. Some pages were left unfilled to allow material to be added in the future. These albums provided residents, families, and staff members with a means to recall life events. This article reports their perceptions of creating such albums.