The results of the clinical trials of cefoperazone (cefobid, Pfizer, USA), a 3rd generation cephalosporin, carried out at the Research Centre of Surgery are presented. The antibiotic was used to treat and prevent postoperative infections in 44 patients. Good and satisfactory results were observed in 43 out of the 44 patients (99.9 per cent). Antimicrobial activity of cefoperazone against 182 bacterial strains isolated from the patients was assayed and compared with that of other cephalosporins i.e. cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime. The cefoperazone pharmacokinetics was studied in the patients with normal renal functions after surgical operations on the organs of the chest and abdominal cavity. The antibiotic was shown useful in the monotherapy of mixed infections involving anaerobic pathogens.
We investigated the frequency and characteristics of infectious purulent and non-infectious complications in living related renal transplant recipients in early postoperative period. It was identified the prevalent microorganisms in urinary tract infections and its antibiotic sensitivity: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans. 182 strains of bacteria and Candida were isolated from urine of renal graft patients in early postoperative period (from 2 days to 3 months). The prevention and treatment schemes, antimicrobial drugs dosing regimen were developed. It leads to decrease the infectious complications rate.
Resistance of 2134 clinical isolates of etiologically significant species of gramnegative bacteria to 5 beta-lactam antibiotics, i. e. cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, imipenem and ceftazidime (the 3rd generation cephalosporin) as the reference drug was investigated for the period of 5 years (2004-2008). In total, 554 strains of E. coli, 578 strains of P. aeruginosa, 255 strains of Acinetobacter spp., 161 strains of Proteus mirabilis, 359 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 227 strains of Enterobacter cloacae were assayed in dynamics. The comparative analysis of the frequency of the antibiotic resistant isolates from the patients treated within 2004-2008 with often and long-term use of cefoperazom-sulbactam, meropenem and imipenem revealed an increase in development of resistance to all beta-lactams, including the inhibitor-protected ones. It least of all concerned imipenem, still isolation of 39.5% of the imipenem resistant strains of P. aeruginosa was in favour of the tendency. A dramatic 3-5-fold rise of resistance in 2007 and 2008 in the isolates of K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Acinetobacter spp. to both the inhibitor-protected beta-lactams, that averaged 56 and 45%, 45 and 35% and 26 and 30% respectively, deserved attention. It was assumed that the main mechanism of resistance in the isolates to the inhibitor-protected beta-lactams was hyperproduction of beta-lactamase of type CTX-M. The large part of the cefepime resistant isolates of K. pneumoniae and Acinetobacter spp. (76.8 and 62.2% respectively) was in favour of the assumption. It was concluded that periodical reversion of the policy of preventive antibiotic prophylaxis was necessary, since such a prophylaxis is a reliable barrier to development of postoperative complications and at the same time it promotes selection of nosocomial strains with some other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance under hospital conditions.
It was analyzed the medical records of 231 patients who underwent living kindred donor kidney transplantation. Early postoperative complications were observed in 51 (22%) patients including infectious events in 30 cases namely pyelonephritis (13), pneumonia (6), sepsis (5), wound infection (3), pulmonary tuberculosis (2) and esophageal mycosis (1). Microflora investigation revealed predominantly gram-negative bacteria including enterobacteriaceae (K. pneumoniae, E. coli and E. cloacae) and nonfermentable bacteria (P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp.). Analysis of 7-year antibiotic susceptibility showed that polymyxin, imipenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam and amikacin preserve their activity against enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonas; linezolid, vancomycinum and moxifloxacin--against staphylococcus; voriconazole, amphotericinum B and fluconazole--against Candida spp. These medicines are preferred for antibiotic prevention of perioperative and early postoperative infectious complications.
A multicentre trial was performed on the activity of cefepime in comparison with ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem and ciprofloxacin against severe hospital infection pathogens in intensive care units. The isolates of Escherichia coli and Proteus spp. from the majority of the centres were highly susceptible to the antibiotics (90 to 100 per cent of the isolates). In some centres up to 40 per cent of the isolates produced ESBL. The isolates of Klebsiella spp. were characterized by lower susceptibility, in some centres the frequency of the strains producing ESBL exceeded 90 per cent, by the MIC geometric mean cefepime was superior to the third generation cephalosporins, the frequency of resistance to ciprofloxacin ranged from 0 to 31 per cent, no resistance to imipenem was recorded. The frequency of resistance to the third generation cephalosporins and piperacillin/tazobactam in Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp., Morganella spp., and Providencia spp. ranged from 10 to 52 per cent, the resistance to cefepime equaled 0-11 per cent, 0 to 17 per cent of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, some isolates were resistant to imipenem. As for the nonfermenting microorganisms their resistance to all the antibiotics tested was comparatively high and markedly differed in various centres. As a whole, 7 per cent of all the isolates of the nonfermenting organisms was resistant to cefepime, 10 per cent was resistant to imipenem, 17 per cent was resistant to ceftazidime, 21 per cent was resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam and 36 per cent was resistant to ciprofloxacin.