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Canadian recommended nutrient intakes underestimate true energy requirements in middle-aged women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207125
Source
Can J Public Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;88(5):314-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
P J Jones
L J Martin
W. Su
N F Boyd
Author Affiliation
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. jonesp@agradm.lan.mcgill.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1997 Sep-Oct;88(5):314-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Deuterium
Diet Records
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Energy intake
Energy Metabolism
Female
Humans
Middle Aged - physiology
Nutrition Assessment
Nutritional Requirements
Oxygen Isotopes
Random Allocation
Abstract
To examine whether Health Canada's Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) and FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, United Nations University) values provide accurate indices of true energy requirements, energy expenditure was determined using doubly labelled water (DLW) over 13 days in a group of 29 middle-aged women. Energy intakes were calculated from weighed food intake, and energy expenditures and intakes were then compared with individual calculated RNI requirements. The mean energy requirement as determined by DLW expenditure (9.56 +/- 0.53 MJ/d) was higher (p
PubMed ID
9401165 View in PubMed
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Mammographic densities and risk of breast cancer among subjects with a family history of this disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201131
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Aug 18;91(16):1404-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-18-1999
Author
N F Boyd
G A Lockwood
L J Martin
J A Knight
R A Jong
E. Fishell
J W Byng
M J Yaffe
D L Tritchler
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology and Statistics, Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Canada.
Source
J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Aug 18;91(16):1404-8
Date
Aug-18-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast - pathology
Breast Neoplasms - genetics - pathology - radiography
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Mammography
Mass Screening
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Risk
Risk factors
Abstract
A family history of breast cancer is known to increase risk of the disease, but other genetic and environmental factors that modify this risk are likely to exist. One of these factors is mammographic density, and we have sought evidence that it is associated with increased risk of breast cancer among women with a family history of breast cancer.
We used data from a nested case-control study based on the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS). From 354 case patients with incident breast cancer detected at least 12 months after entry into the NBSS and 354 matched control subjects, we analyzed subjects who were identified as having a family history of breast cancer according to one of three, nonmutually exclusive, criteria. We compared the mammographic densities of case patients and control subjects by radiologic and computer-assisted methods of measurement.
After adjustment for other risk factors for breast cancer, the relative risks (RRs) between the most and least extensive categories of breast density were as follows: For at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer, RR = 11.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.54-80.39); for at least two affected first- or second-degree relatives, RR = 2.57 (95% CI = 0.23-28.22); for at least one first- or second-degree relative with breast cancer, RR = 5.43 (95% CI = 1.85-15.88).
These results suggest that mammographic density may be strongly associated with risk of breast cancer among women with a family history of the disease. Because mammographic densities can be modified by dietary and hormonal interventions, the results suggest potential approaches to the prevention of breast cancer in women with a family history of breast cancer.
PubMed ID
10451446 View in PubMed
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The population structure of ten Newfoundland outports.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195460
Source
Hum Biol. 2000 Dec;72(6):997-1016
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2000
Author
L J Martin
M H Crawford
T. Koertvelyessy
D. Keeping
M. Collins
R. Huntsman
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66045, USA.
Source
Hum Biol. 2000 Dec;72(6):997-1016
Date
Dec-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Group Antigens - genetics
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Gene Frequency
Genetics, Population
Humans
Likelihood Functions
Newfoundland and Labrador
Regression Analysis
Religion and Medicine
Abstract
Island populations are most informative in the study of the genetic structure of human aggregates. These populations are often of small size, thus violating the Hardy-Weinberg assumption of infinite size. Some geographically isolated island populations are further subdivided by religion, ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors, reducing their effective sizes and facilitating genetic changes due to stochastic processes. Because of extreme geographic and social isolation, fishing communities or outports of Newfoundland have been investigated for genetic microdifferentiation through the founder effect and genetic drift (Crawford et al. 1995). The purpose of this paper is to examine the population structure of 10 Newfoundland outports using the allelic frequencies derived from 12 red cell antigens. To achieve this goal, first we calculated gene frequencies using maximum-likelihood estimation procedures. Second, we used R-matrix methods to explore population differentiation. Third, we regressed mean per-locus heterozygosity on genetic distance from the gene frequency centroid to identify the most isolated populations. On the basis of this information, the three outports of Seal Cove, Island Harbor, and Tilting were found to be genetically differentiated from the other small populations. Moreover, religious and geographic subdivisions appear to explain the observed genetic variation.
PubMed ID
11236869 View in PubMed
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Rates of initial virological suppression and subsequent virological failure after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy: the impact of aboriginal ethnicity and injection drug use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138354
Source
Curr HIV Res. 2010 Dec;8(8):649-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
L J Martin
S. Houston
Y. Yasui
T C Wild
L D Saunders
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada. leah.martin@ualberta.ca
Source
Curr HIV Res. 2010 Dec;8(8):649-58
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta - ethnology
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active - statistics & numerical data
Cohort Studies
Female
HIV Infections - drug therapy - mortality - virology
HIV-1 - physiology
Humans
Male
Patient compliance
Population Groups - statistics & numerical data
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - drug therapy - virology
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
To compare rates of initial virological suppression and subsequent virological failure by Aboriginal ethnicity after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-patients starting HAART in January 1999-June 2005 (baseline), followed until December 31, 2005 in Alberta, Canada. We compared the odds of achieving initial virological suppression (viral load 1000 copies/mL) by Aboriginal ethnicity using cumulative incidence curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Sex, injection drug use as an HIV exposure category (IDU), baseline age, CD4 cell count, viral load, calendar year, and HAART regimen were considered as potential confounders.
Of 461 study patients, 37% were Aboriginal and 48% were IDUs; 71% achieved initial virological suppression and were followed for 730.4 person-years. After adjusting for confounding variables, compared to non-Aboriginals with other exposures, the odds of achieving initial virological suppression were lower for Aboriginal IDUs (odds ratio (OR)=0.33, 95% CI=0.19-0.60, p=0.0002), non-Aboriginal IDUs (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.15-0.60, p=0.0006), and Aboriginals with other exposures (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.21-0.67, p=0.0009). Among those achieving suppression, Aboriginals experienced higher virological failure rates =1 year after suppression (hazard ratio=3.35, 95% CI=1.68-6.65, p=0.0006).
Future research should investigate adherence among Aboriginals and IDUs treated with HAART and explore their treatment experiences to assess ways to improve outcomes.
PubMed ID
21187007 View in PubMed
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Self-reported physical and emotional health of women in a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary trial (Canada).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202534
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1998 Dec;9(6):601-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
J. Leyenaar
H J Sutherland
G A Lockwood
L J Martin
V. Kriukov
C V Greenberg
N F Boyd
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology and Statistics, Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Canada.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1998 Dec;9(6):601-10
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diet, Fat-Restricted
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Female
Health status
Humans
Mental health
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Women's health
Abstract
While decreased intake of dietary fat may have significant positive effects on women's health by reducing the risk of cancer and other diseases, little research has been carried out to determine the potential adverse effects of dietary fat reduction. This study compares the self-reported physical and emotional health of 402 low fat intervention and control group participants in the Canadian Diet and Breast Cancer Prevention Trial.
Subjects who had been participating in the dietary intervention trial for at least 2 years completed 3 mailed questionnaires: two designed to assess physical and emotional health (MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ)) and a Health Practices Survey.
There were no significant differences between the study groups on total scores or any of the subscales/health domains for the SF-36 or the WHQ. In premenopausal women only, intervention group subjects scored significantly lower on the vasomotor symptoms scale, indicating less symptom experience. Frequency of visits to physicians and alternative health practitioners were not significantly different between the study groups.
The results of this study suggest that participation in a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intervention did not have any detrimental effects on participants' self-reported physical health or emotional well-being.
PubMed ID
10189045 View in PubMed
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A study of diet and breast cancer prevention in Canada: why healthy women participate in controlled trials.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219924
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1993 Nov;4(6):521-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1993
Author
H J Sutherland
K. Carlin
W. Harper
L J Martin
C V Greenberg
J E Till
N F Boyd
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology & Statistics, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1993 Nov;4(6):521-8
Date
Nov-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health
Behavioral Research
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Control Groups
Decision Making
Diet
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Female
Humans
Patient compliance
Patient Participation - psychology
Questionnaires
Research Subjects
Abstract
Little research has been undertaken to determine why healthy people agree to enroll in randomized controlled trials of cancer prevention. This study describes the beliefs of Canadian women participating in a trial designed to determine the effect of reducing dietary fat on the development of breast cancer. Healthier eating, nutritional counseling, contributing to science, and helping others were the most frequently cited advantages of participation. Weight control and general better health were specifically associated with the dietary regimens. Attending appointments and difficulties when eating out were the main disadvantages of participation. Suggestions that would promote adherence to the trial protocol also were elicited. Responses cited most often included opportunities to meet other participants, more nutritional counseling (particularly psychological tips), updates about the trial, and more recipes. Attention should be paid to these suggestions as they characterize some of the major determinants of adherence behavior.
PubMed ID
8280829 View in PubMed
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Transformational teaching and adolescent physical activity: multilevel and mediational effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256588
Source
Int J Behav Med. 2014 Jun;21(3):537-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
M R Beauchamp
Y. Liu
K L Morton
L J Martin
A H Wilson
A J Wilson
B D Sylvester
B D Zumbo
J. Barling
Author Affiliation
School of Kinesiology, The University of British Columbia, 122-6081 University Boulevard, Vancouver, V6T 1Z1, Canada, mark.beauchamp@ubc.ca.
Source
Int J Behav Med. 2014 Jun;21(3):537-46
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Psychology
British Columbia
Faculty
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Leadership
Leisure Activities
Male
Models, Statistical
Motor Activity
Physical Education and Training
Prospective Studies
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Regular physical activity is associated with a range of physical and psychological health benefits. In North America the majority of adolescents are insufficiently active.
The purpose of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between adolescents' perceptions of transformational leadership displayed by their school physical education teachers and their own physical activity behaviors, both with respect to within-class physical activity (WCPA) and also leisure time physical activity (LTPA).
The study used a prospective observational design. Using multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM), we examined the extent to which adolescents' affective attitudes mediated the effects of teachers' behaviors on adolescents' physical activity responses. Two thousand nine hundred and forty-eight adolescents (M age = 14.33, SD = 1.00, N female = 1,641, 55.7 %) from 133 Grade 8-10 classes in British Columbia (Canada) provided ratings of their physical education teachers' behaviors midway through the school year. Two months later, students completed measures of affective attitudes, WCPA, and LTPA.
The results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of transformational teaching explained significant variance in both WCPA and LTPA, and these effects were fully mediated by adolescents' affective attitudes (total indirect effect: b = 0.581, p
PubMed ID
23760732 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.