A fairly common view holds that children's risks of negative outcomes associated with family dissolution are generally small or even nonexistent in Scandinavia, and clearly smaller than what is usually found in the United States. This view was empirically examined in a recent large-scale study of 4,127 12-15-year-old children in Norway, of whom 623 had experienced parental divorce and lived in a single-mother family. The somewhat paradoxical pattern of findings was as follows: (a) The negative associations between parental divorce and various outcomes were found to be generally very similar in Norway and the United States in spite of the great differences in family policy and welfare benefits for single mothers (at the macro level); and (b) Mediational effects of family economic resources were in both countries most marked for the academic achievement area, and the predictive power of such variables was quite similar, again in spite of the great differences in absolute level of the economic resources available to single-mother families in the two countries. The results cast some doubt on the value of the absolute economic deprivation perspective in explaining the results, and the many Norwegian welfare benefits do not seem to mitigate the association between divorce and negative outcomes for the children involved. Also policy implications derived from the economic deprivation perspective are questioned. Alternative interpretations of the findings involving relative deprivation and economic resources as a partial proxy for other non-economic factors are briefly discussed.
Based on nine waves of data collected during a period of 17 years (1990-2007), the present study explored different developmental trajectories of the following unhealthy behaviors: regular smoking, lack of regular exercise, lack of daily fruit intake, and drunkenness. A baseline sample of 1195 13-year-old pupils was from 22 randomly selected schools in the Hordaland County in western Norway. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories. The first trajectory was a conventional trajectory, comprising 36.3% of participants, who showed changes in smoking, physical exercise, fruit intake, and drunkenness consistent with the prevailing age specific norms of these behaviors in the Norwegian society at the time. The second trajectory was a passive trajectory, comprising 25.5% of participants, who reported low levels of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors during the 17-year period. The third trajectory was an unhealthy trajectory, comprising 38.2% of participants, who had high levels of unhealthy behaviors over time. Several covariates were examined, but only sex and mother's and father's educational levels were found to be significantly associated with the identified trajectories. While these findings need to be replicated in future studies, the identification of the different trajectories suggests the need to tailor intervention according to specific needs.
Although frequently used with older adolescents, few studies of the factor structure, internal consistency and gender equivalence of the SDQ exists for this age group, with inconsistent findings. In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the five-factor structure of the SDQ in a population sample of 10,254 16-18 year-olds from the youth@hordaland study. Measurement invariance across gender was assessed using multigroup CFA. A modestly modified five-factor solution fitted the data acceptably, accounting for one cross loading and some local dependencies. Importantly, partial measurement non-invariance was identified, with differential item functioning in eight items, and higher correlations between emotional and conduct problems for boys compared to girls. Implications for use clinically and in research are discussed.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal designs within a prospective cohort study.
Translation of Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire (FFbH-R) into Norwegian and examination of its factor structure, internal consistency, reproducibility, construct validity, and responsiveness in patients with long-lasting back pain.
Several condition-specific instruments have been developed to evaluate functional status in low back pain, but FFbH-R was the only instrument found to solely measure perceived capability of performing daily activities.
Recommended guidelines for translation of questionnaires and quality criteria for validation were followed. A total of 111 patients (aged 18-65 years) with long-lasting back pain were consecutively recruited from an outpatient spine clinic. Two additional samples of patients with long-lasting back pain were added into the exploratory factor analysis, giving a total number of 224 patients. Predefined hypotheses regarding construct and longitudinal validity (responsiveness) were examined.
Factor analysis indicated that 2 items should be removed, resulting in a 3-factor solution as the best fit. The factors were related to flexibility, dynamic strength, and posture endurance. Satisfactory internal consistency and reproducibility were demonstrated for the total and subscales of the Norwegian version of FFbH-R. Most of the predefined hypothesis regarding construct and longitudinal validity were confirmed, and discriminate ability was shown. Minor floor and ceiling effects were demonstrated.
Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of FFbH-R were satisfactory in patients with long-lasting back pain, but the dynamic strength and posture endurance subscales might be complemented with additional items.
To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors.
Child mental health questionnaires were completed by both teachers and parents of all children in grades 2-4 in Bergen, Norway. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the ADHD items of a modified version of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Questionnaire-IV (SNAP-IV) for 6,237 children.
The bifactor model showed very good model fit with a strong general ADHD factor and specific factors for impulsivity and inattention. The subfactors, especially hyperactivity, generated from the SNAP-IV ADHD items conveyed little unique variance in the model.
The findings in this general population sample with a strong general ADHD factor in the bifactor model supports the view on ADHD as a unitary concept with specific domain factors for inattention and impulsivity, but not for hyperactivity. The bifactor model questions the utility of constructing ADHD subscales by the use of a simple sum score when using the SNAP-IV.
To translate the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), a measure of trunk control in patients after stroke, into Norwegian (TIS-NV), and to explore its construct validity, internal consistency, intertester and test-retest reliability.
TIS was translated according to international guidelines. The validity study was performed on data from 201 patients with acute stroke. Fifty patients with stroke and acquired brain injury were recruited to examine intertester and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was analyzed with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory, internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha test, and intertester and test-retest reliability with kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient tests.
The back-translated version of TIS-NV was validated by the original developer. The subscale Static sitting balance was removed. By combining items from the subscales Dynamic sitting balance and Coordination, six ordinal superitems (testlets) were constructed. The TIS-NV was renamed the modified TIS-NV (TIS-modNV). After modifications the TIS-modNV fitted well to a locally dependent unidimensional item response theory model. It demonstrated good construct validity, excellent internal consistency, and high intertester and test-retest reliability for the total score.
This study supports that the TIS-modNV is a valid and reliable scale for use in clinical practice and research.
Long-term sick leave and withdrawal from working life is a concern in western countries. In Norway, comprehensive inpatient work rehabilitation may be offered to sick listed individuals at risk of long-term absence from work. Knowledge about prognostic factors for work outcomes after long-term sick leave and work rehabilitation is still limited. The aim of this study was to test a mediation model for various hypothesized biopsychosocial predictors of continued sick leave after inpatient work rehabilitation.
One thousand one hundred fifty-five participants on long-term sick leave from eight different work rehabilitation clinics answered comprehensive questionnaires at arrival to the clinic, and were followed with official register data on sickness benefits for 3?years. Structural equation models were conducted, with days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation as the outcome.
Fear avoidance beliefs for work mediated the relation between both musculoskeletal complaints and education on days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation. The relation between musculoskeletal complaints and fear avoidance beliefs for work was furthermore fully mediated by poor physical function. Previous sick leave had a strong independent effect on continued sick leave after work rehabilitation. Fear avoidance beliefs for work did not mediate the small effect of pseudoneurological complaints on continued sick leave. Poor coping/interaction ability was neither related to continued sick leave nor fear avoidance beliefs for work.
The mediation model was partly supported by the data, and provides some possible new insight into how fear avoidance beliefs for work and functional ability may intervene with subjective health complaints and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation.
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2007;7:27817915025
Cites: Scand J Prim Health Care. 1989 Jun;7(2):111-72587857
The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire--Short Form (CTQ-SF) is widely used to measure childhood abuse of all types. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the instrument. The participants constituted four subsamples (n = 517): substance abusers (n = 126), psychiatric patients (n = 210), prisoners (n = 109) and adolescents in out-of-home placements (n = 72). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a reasonable fit of the data to the original five-factor structure of the CTQ-SF. Measurement invariance was found across gender and the four subsamples. It was concluded that the Norwegian version of the CTQ-SF has acceptable psychometric properties, with good reliability and satisfactory accuracy, to assess different dimensions of childhood trauma.