Both obesity and underweight are associated with impaired physical functioning, but related information on the oldest old population is scarce. Our purpose was to examine whether body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and their combination are associated with physical performance and activities of daily living (ADL) disability in 90-year-old women and men.
Data are from the Vitality 90+ Study, which is a population-based study of persons with age =90 years living in the area of Tampere, Finland. Altogether 416 women and 153 men, aged 90-91 years, provided data on body mass index, WC, chair stand, and Barthel Index. Comorbidity, physical exercise, smoking history, living residence, and sample year were used as covariates in multinomial logistic and logistic regression models.
Women in the highest WC tertile had lower physical performance and were more likely unable to perform the chair stand than women in the lowest WC tertile. Women in the highest WC tertile were also more likely to have ADL disability, compared to the lowest WC tertile. In women, overweight and obesity were associated with ADL disability, but not when WC was included in the model. Men with body mass index =25 kg/m(2) and WC
Only scarce data exist on the association between obesity and disability in the oldest old. The purpose of this prospective study is to examine if body mass index and waist circumference (WC) are associated with incident mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) disability in nonagenarians.
We used longitudinal data from the Vitality 90+ Study, which is a population-based study conducted at the area of Tampere, Finland. Altogether 291 women and 134 men, aged 90-91 years, had measured data on body mass index and/or WC and did not have self-reported mobility or ADL disability at baseline. Incident mobility and ADL disability was followed-up on median 3.6 years (range 0.6-7.8 years). Mortality was also followed-up. Multinomial logistic regression models were used for the analyses, as death was treated as an alternative outcome. The follow-up time was taken into account in the analyses.
Neither low or high body mass index, nor low or high WC, were associated with incident mobility disability. In women, the lowest WC tertile (
The associations of body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity with mortality among very old people are poorly known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio with mortality in nonagenarians.
This study is part of a prospective population-based study, Vitality 90+, including both community-dwelling and institutionalized persons from Tampere, Finland. Altogether 192 women and 65 men aged 90 years were subjected to anthropometric measurements, a baseline interview, and a 4-year mortality follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used in the statistical analyses.
In men, normal weight indicated a three times higher mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 3.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-7.06) compared with overweight, and WC was inversely associated with mortality (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-1.00) after adjustment for covariates. In women, the univariate waist-to-hip ratio (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.06-1.92) and BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.97) were positively associated with mortality. Also, overweight women whose WC was
Increased proinflammatory status is associated with both increased adiposity and higher mortality risk. Thus, it is paradoxical that mild obesity does not predict increased mortality in older adults. We investigated the association of inflammatory markers with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in nonagenarians, and the combined effects of BMI, WC, WHR, and inflammatory status on mortality.
This study was based on a prospective population-based study, Vitality 90+, carried out in Tampere, Finland. Altogether, 157 women and 53 men aged 90 years were subjected to anthropometric measurements, blood samples, and a 4-year mortality follow-up. Inflammatory status was based on sex-specific median levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a).
In the unadjusted linear regression analyses, IL-1RA, CRP, and TNF-a were positively associated with BMI and WC in women, whereas in men IL-1RA was positively associated with BMI and IL-6 positively with WC. In the models adjusted for diseases, functional status, and smoking, IL-1RA and CRP were positively associated with BMI and WC in women. Low WC and WHR combined with low inflammation protected from mortality in women and high BMI and WC regardless of inflammation protected from mortality in men in the adjusted Cox regression analysis.
In the oldest old, the effect of adiposity in combination with inflammatory status on mortality differs between men and women. More research is needed to disentangle the role of adiposity among the oldest old.
Cites: World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1995;854:1-4528594834
To examine long-term changes in handgrip strength and the factors predicting handgrip strength decline.
Longitudinal cohort study with 22 years of follow-up.
Population-based Mini-Finland Health Examination Survey in Finland.
Nine hundred sixty-three men and women aged 30 to 73 at baseline.
Handgrip strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer at baseline and follow-up. Information on potential risk factors, namely lifestyle and chronic conditions, and their changes throughout the follow-up were based on health interviews.
Based on linear mixed-effect models, midlife physically strenuous work, excess body weight, smoking, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma predicted muscle strength decline over 22 years of follow-up (P
information about the predictors of mortality among the oldest-old is limited. Also possible gender differences are poorly known.
to examine the predictors of mortality among individuals aged 90 and older, focusing on differences between men and women. We also analysed gender differences in survival at different levels of mobility and activities in daily living (ADL).
this 9-year follow-up study is part of the Vitality 90+ study, a population-based study of people aged 90 and older.
all inhabitants aged 90 and older in the area of Tampere, Finland were contacted, irrespective of health or dwelling place. The study population consisted of 171 men and 717 women.
data were collected with a mailed questionnaire asking questions concerning ADL and mobility, self-rated health, chronic conditions and socio-economic factors. The participation rate was 79%. Cox regression enter models were used for the analysis.
older age, male gender, disability in ADL and mobility, poor self-rated health and institutionalisation increased the risk of mortality in the total study group. In age-adjusted Cox regression models, ADL and mobility were stronger predictors in men than in women (gender interactions, P
This study examined the relative contribution of genetic and environmental effects on maximal leg extensor power and also investigated whether leg extensor power and maximum voluntary isometric knee extensor strength share a genetic component.
Muscle functions were measured as part of the Finnish Twin Study on Aging in 101 monozygotic (MZ) and 116 dizygotic (DZ) female twin pairs aged 63-76 yr. Leg extensor power was measured using the Nottingham Leg Extensor Power Rig and maximum voluntary isometric knee extensor strength using an adjustable dynamometer chair. The analyses were carried out using the maximum likelihood method in Mx-program on the raw data set.
A bivariate Cholesky decomposition model showed that leg extensor power and isometric knee extensor strength shared a genetic component in common, which accounted for 32% of the total variance in leg extensor power and 48% in isometric knee extensor strength. In addition, power and strength had a nonshared environmental effect in common accounting for four percent of the variance in power and 52% in strength. Remaining variance for leg extensor power was due to trait-specific shared and nonshared environmental effects.
Observed genetic effect in common for leg extensor power and maximum voluntary isometric knee extensor strength indicated that these two traits are regulated by the same genes. However, also environmental effects have a significant role in explaining the variability in power and strength.