For uninsured American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AIAN) diagnosed with cancer, prompt enrollment in Medicaid may speed access to treatment and improve survival. We hypothesized that AIANs who were eligible for the Indian Health Service Care System (IHSCS) at cancer diagnosis may be enrolled in Medicaid sooner than other AIANs.
Using Washington, Oregon, and California State Cancer Registries, we identified AIANs with a primary diagnosis of lung, breast, colorectal, cervical, ovarian, stomach, or prostate cancer between 2001 and 2007. Among AIANs enrolled in Medicaid within 365 days of a cancer diagnosis, we linked cancer registry records with Medicaid enrollment data and used a multivariate logistic regression model to compare the odds of delayed Medicaid enrollment between those with (n = 223) and without (n = 177) IHSCS eligibility.
Among AIANs who enrolled in Medicaid during the year following their cancer diagnosis, approximately 32% enrolled >1 month following diagnosis. Comparing those without IHSCS eligibility to those with IHSCS eligibility, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for moderately late Medicaid enrollment (between 1 and 6 months after diagnosis) relative to early Medicaid enrollment (=1 month after diagnosis) was 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-1.95] and for very late Medicaid enrollment (>6 months to 12 months after diagnosis), OR was 1.14 (CI, 0.54-2.43).
IHSCS eligibility at the time of diagnosis does not seem to facilitate early Medicaid enrollment.
Because cancer survival rates in AIANs are among the lowest of any racial group, additional research is needed to identify factors that improve access to care in AIANs.
Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with lower rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) to interferon-based treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus infection, whereas Asian race was associated with higher SVR rates compared to white patients. We aimed to describe the association between race/ethnicity and effectiveness of new direct-acting antiviral regimens in the Veterans Affairs health care system nationally. We identified 21,095 hepatitis C virus-infected patients (11,029 [52%] white, 6,171 [29%] black, 1,187 [6%] Hispanic, 348 [2%] Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaska Native, and 2,360 [11%] declined/missing race or ethnicity) who initiated antiviral treatment with regimens containing sofosbuvir, simeprevir + sofosbuvir, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, or paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir/dasabuvir during the 18-month period from January 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015. Overall SVR rates were 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 89.2-90.4) in white, 89.8% (95% CI 89.0-90.6) in black, 86.0% (95% CI 83.7-88.0) in Hispanic, and 90.7% (95% CI 87.0-93.5) in Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian/Alaska Native patients. However, after adjustment for baseline characteristics, black (adjusted odds ratio = 0.77, P