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An investigation of the adjustment of retrospective noise exposure for use of hearing protection devices.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144810
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Apr;54(3):329-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Hind Sbihi
Kay Teschke
Ying C MacNab
Hugh W Davies
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3. sbhi@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Apr;54(3):329-39
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Ear Protective Devices - utilization
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiologic Methods
Epidemiological Monitoring
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hearing Tests
Humans
Industry - statistics & numerical data
Male
Noise, Occupational - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Exposure - analysis - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
To account for use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) in retrospective noise exposure assessment, adjust noise exposure estimates accordingly, and validate the adjusted estimates.
A previous study in the same working population showed a stronger relation for noise and acute myocardial infarction among those who did not wear HPD. Because accurate noise exposure assessment is complicated by the use of HPD, we previously developed a multilevel model of the likelihood of HPD use for British Columbia (Canada) lumber mill workers. Historical estimates of noise exposure can be adjusted according to models predictions and a reduction in misclassifying workers, exposure is expected.
Work history and exposure information were obtained for 13,147 lumber mill workers followed from 1909 until 1998. Audiometric data for the cohort, including hearing threshold levels at several pure tone frequencies, were obtained from the local regulatory agency for the period from 1978 to 2003. Following the modeling of HPD use, noise estimates were adjusted according to models predictions and attenuation factors based on existing research and standards. Adjusted and unadjusted noise metrics were compared by investigating their ability to predict noise-induced hearing loss.
We showed a 4-fold increase in the noise exposure and hearing loss slope, after adjusting for HPD use, while controlling for gender, age, race, as well as medical and non-occupational confounding variables.
While the relative difference before and after adjustment for use of HPD is considerable, we observed a subtle absolute magnitude of the effect. Using noise-induced hearing loss as a 'gold standard' for testing the assessment of retrospective noise exposure estimates should continue to be investigated.
PubMed ID
20237208 View in PubMed
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Association of Parkinson's disease with infections and occupational exposure to possible vectors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122927
Source
Mov Disord. 2012 Aug;27(9):1111-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
M Anne Harris
Joseph K Tsui
Stephen A Marion
Hui Shen
Kay Teschke
Author Affiliation
University of British Columbia, School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. m.anne.harris@alumni.ubc.ca
Source
Mov Disord. 2012 Aug;27(9):1111-7
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Cats
Cattle
Databases, Factual
Disease Vectors
Female
Humans
Infection - complications
Influenza Vaccines
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Parkinson Disease - etiology
Pets
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Virus Diseases - complications - epidemiology
Zoonoses
Abstract
The ultimate causes of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not fully known, but environmental and occupational causes are suspected. Postencephalitic parkinsonism has been linked to influenza, and other viral infections have also been suspected to relate to PD. We estimated the relationship between PD and both infections and possible vectors of infection (i.e., animal and human) in a population-based, case-control study in British Columbia, Canada. We recruited 403 cases detected by their use of antiparkinsonian medications and 405 controls from the registrants of the provincial universal health insurance plan. Severe influenza was associated with PD (odds ratio [OR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.48), although this effect was attenuated when reports were restricted to those occurring 10 or more years before diagnosis. Childhood illnesses were inversely associated with PD, particularly red measles (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.90). Several animal exposures were associated with PD, with statistically significant effects for cats (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.09-3.92) and cattle (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.22-4.09). Influenza infection may be associated with PD. The inverse relationships with childhood infections may suggest an increased risk with subclinical or asymptomatic childhood infections. Occupational exposure to animals may increase risk through transmission of infections or may indicate exposure to another agent of interest (e.g., bacterial endotoxin).
PubMed ID
22753266 View in PubMed
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Beta(1-->3)-glucan exposure levels among workers in four British Columbia sawmills.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184540
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2003;10(1):21-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Lisa A Ronald
Hugh W Davies
Karen H Bartlett
Susan M Kennedy
Kay Teschke
Jacques Spithoven
Martine Dennekamp
Paul A Demers
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2003;10(1):21-9
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
British Columbia
Dust
Glucans - analysis
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Inhalation Exposure
Occupational Exposure
Wood
Abstract
Beta(1-->3)-glucans were extracted from wood dust samples taken during the summer of 1997 at four British Columbia sawmills. Personal dust samples were collected using a GSP-sampler for inhalable dust and the sampling strategy targeted all production and maintenance jobs at least once at each mill. Potential exposure determinants data were documented concurrently, including weather conditions, log storage methods, wood conditions, species, production level, jobs and tasks. beta(1-->3)-glucans were measured by enzyme inhibition immunoassay (EIA). A total of 223 personal beta(1-->3)-glucan samples were analyzed. 45.7% were below the limit of detection (LOD). Geometric mean concentration ranged from 3.5 to 18.9 micro g/m(3) across the four mills. The highest levels were measured at the Interior mills, particularly in the log processing and sawmill areas. Multivariate regression models indicated that land-based log storage, clean-up jobs, high wood dust concentration, lumber yard department and the interaction between land-based log storage method and log processing department were associated with increased beta(1-->3)-glucan concentration.
PubMed ID
12852730 View in PubMed
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The Bicyclists' Injuries and the Cycling Environment study: a protocol to tackle methodological issues facing studies of bicycling safety.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133867
Source
Inj Prev. 2011 Oct;17(5):e6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
M Anne Harris
Conor C O Reynolds
Meghan Winters
Mary Chipman
Peter A Cripton
Michael D Cusimano
Kay Teschke
Author Affiliation
Occupational Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Care Ontario, 505 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. harris.m.anne@gmail.com
Source
Inj Prev. 2011 Oct;17(5):e6
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bicycling - injuries
Canada
Epidemiologic Research Design
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Prospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Safety
Abstract
Bicycling may be less appealing in parts of the world where cycling is less safe. Differences between jurisdictions suggest route design is key to improving safety and increasing ridership. Previous studies faced difficulties in effectively assessing denominators for risk calculations and controlling confounding. This paper describes the advantages of the case-crossover design of the Bicyclists' Injuries and the Cycling Environment study to address these challenges to observational studies of cycling safety.
Injured cyclists were recruited from the emergency departments of five hospitals in Vancouver and Toronto, Canada. In 18 months, 690 participants were successfully recruited and interviewed. Each participant was interviewed to map the route of their injury trip, identify the injury site and select two control sites at random from the same route. Infrastructural characteristics at each study site were scored by site observers who were blinded as to whether sites were crash or comparison sites. Analyses will compare infrastructural variables between case and control sites with conditional logistic regression.
This study presents a novel application of the case-crossover design to the evaluation of relationships between infrastructure and cycling safety while controlling confounders and exposure to risk. It is hoped that the value of this method and the efficiency of the recruitment process will encourage replication in other locations, to expand the range of cycling infrastructure compared and to facilitate evidence-based cycling infrastructure choices that can make cycling safer and more appealing.
PubMed ID
21653651 View in PubMed
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Built environment influences on healthy transportation choices: bicycling versus driving.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138466
Source
J Urban Health. 2010 Dec;87(6):969-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Meghan Winters
Michael Brauer
Eleanor M Setton
Kay Teschke
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. mwinters@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
J Urban Health. 2010 Dec;87(6):969-93
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Automobile Driving - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Bicycling - physiology - psychology
British Columbia
Confidence Intervals
Decision Making
Environment Design - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Behavior
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Motor Activity - physiology
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Young Adult
Abstract
A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, trip destinations, and along the route between. We analyzed 3,280 utilitarian bicycle and car trips in Metro Vancouver, Canada made by 1,902 adults, including both current and potential cyclists. Objective measures were developed for built environment characteristics related to the physical environment, land use patterns, the road network, and bicycle-specific facilities. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the likelihood that a trip was made by bicycle, adjusting for trip distance and personal demographics. Separate models were constructed for each spatial zone, and a global model examined the relative influence of the three zones. In total, 31% (1,023 out of 3,280) of trips were made by bicycle. Increased odds of bicycling were associated with less hilliness; higher intersection density; less highways and arterials; presence of bicycle signage, traffic calming, and cyclist-activated traffic lights; more neighborhood commercial, educational, and industrial land uses; greater land use mix; and higher population density. Different factors were important within each spatial zone. Overall, the characteristics of routes were more influential than origin or destination characteristics. These findings indicate that the built environment has a significant influence on healthy travel decisions, and spatial context is important. Future research should explicitly consider relevant spatial zones when investigating the relationship between physical activity and urban form.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21174189 View in PubMed
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Cancer and occupational exposure to pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorophenol (Canada).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168759
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Aug;17(6):749-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
Paul A Demers
Hugh W Davies
Melissa C Friesen
Clyde Hertzman
Aleck Ostry
Ruth Hershler
Kay Teschke
Author Affiliation
School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. pdemers@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Aug;17(6):749-58
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Chlorophenols - toxicity
Follow-Up Studies
Fungicides, Industrial - toxicity
Humans
Kidney Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Multiple Myeloma - chemically induced - mortality
Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Pentachlorophenol - toxicity
Regression Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
The objective of this study is to assess the carcinogenicity of pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorophenol using data from the BC sawmill workers cohort study.
The cohort consisted of 27,464 men employed by 14 sawmills for 1 year or more between 1950 and 1995. Fatal (1950-1995) and incident (1969-1995) cancers were identified using national registries. Plant records and systematic interviews with senior employees were used to estimate dermal exposure. Comparisons were made with the general BC population and dose-response relationships were assessed using Poisson regression.
There were 1,495 fatal cancer and 2,571 incident cancers. There were no large or statistically significant excesses of any of the specific cancers were observed compared to the general population. Internal analyses showed strong dose-response relationships for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and kidney cancer. These relationships were strongest when exposure was restricted to pentachlorophenol. The strength of the dose-response increased when exposure was lagged by 20 years.
Dermal exposure to pentachlorophenol was associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and kidney cancer, but not with other cancers of a priori interest.
PubMed ID
16783603 View in PubMed
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Comparing the effects of infrastructure on bicycling injury at intersections and non-intersections using a case-crossover design.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116311
Source
Inj Prev. 2013 Oct;19(5):303-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
M Anne Harris
Conor C O Reynolds
Meghan Winters
Peter A Cripton
Hui Shen
Mary L Chipman
Michael D Cusimano
Shelina Babul
Jeffrey R Brubacher
Steven M Friedman
Garth Hunte
Melody Monro
Lee Vernich
Kay Teschke
Author Affiliation
School of Occupational and Public Health, Ryerson University, , Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Inj Prev. 2013 Oct;19(5):303-10
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Bicycling - injuries
British Columbia
Case-Control Studies
Cross-Over Studies
Environment Design
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario
Safety Management - methods
Abstract
This study examined the impact of transportation infrastructure at intersection and non-intersection locations on bicycling injury risk.
In Vancouver and Toronto, we studied adult cyclists who were injured and treated at a hospital emergency department. A case-crossover design compared the infrastructure of injury and control sites within each injured bicyclist's route. Intersection injury sites (N=210) were compared to randomly selected intersection control sites (N=272). Non-intersection injury sites (N=478) were compared to randomly selected non-intersection control sites (N=801).
At intersections, the types of routes meeting and the intersection design influenced safety. Intersections of two local streets (no demarcated traffic lanes) had approximately one-fifth the risk (adjusted OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.66) of intersections of two major streets (more than two traffic lanes). Motor vehicle speeds less than 30 km/h also reduced risk (adjusted OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.92). Traffic circles (small roundabouts) on local streets increased the risk of these otherwise safe intersections (adjusted OR 7.98, 95% CI 1.79 to 35.6). At non-intersection locations, very low risks were found for cycle tracks (bike lanes physically separated from motor vehicle traffic; adjusted OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.59) and local streets with diverters that reduce motor vehicle traffic (adjusted OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.60). Downhill grades increased risks at both intersections and non-intersections.
These results provide guidance for transportation planners and engineers: at local street intersections, traditional stops are safer than traffic circles, and at non-intersections, cycle tracks alongside major streets and traffic diversion from local streets are safer than no bicycle infrastructure.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23411678 View in PubMed
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Congenital anomalies in the offspring of nurses: association with area of employment during pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131440
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2011 Jul-Sep;17(3):195-201
Publication Type
Article
Author
Helen Dimich-Ward
D. Le Nhu
Kris Beking
Anne Dybuncio
John J Spinelli
Richard P Gallagher
Pamela A Ratner
Laura Arbour
Kay Teschke
Author Affiliation
UBC Department of Medicine, Vancouver, Canada. Helen.Ward@vch.ca
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2011 Jul-Sep;17(3):195-201
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
British Columbia - epidemiology
Congenital Abnormalities - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Maternal Age
Nurses
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine whether registered nurses in specific areas of employment during pregnancy had a higher risk for congenital anomalies in their offspring. An offspring cohort (n = 22,611) was created through linkage of the British Columbia Vital Statistics Agency live and stillbirth records from 1986 to 2000, to a female cohort database of registered nurses. Of these, 16,005 (70.8%) were registered in a specific area of employment when pregnant. Odds ratios were calculated using generalized estimating equations (GEE), binary logistic regression with adjustment for sex, mother's age, and year of birth. Elevated risks of congenital anomalies were found for the singleton offspring of nurses employed in the following areas: operating rooms and pediatric nursing units (heart anomalies); maternal newborn units (integument); emergency room (respiratory system); and psychiatry (upper alimentary tract). Further research is needed to determine whether these are chance or consistent findings and whether exposure patterns might provide biological plausibility.
PubMed ID
21905386 View in PubMed
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Determinants of use of hearing protection devices in Canadian lumber mill workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149943
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Apr;54(3):319-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Hind Sbihi
Kay Teschke
Ying C MacNab
Hugh W Davies
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, 3rd Floor, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3. sbihi@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Apr;54(3):319-28
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Audiometry
British Columbia - epidemiology
Ear Protective Devices - utilization
Epidemiologic Methods
Ethnic Groups
Female
Health Behavior
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Industry
Male
Models, Biological
Noise, Occupational - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure - analysis - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
In a cohort study of lumber mill workers' exposure to noise and incidence of heart disease, initial noise estimates were likely overestimated because they did not account for reductions afforded by the use of hearing protection. As such information was seldom available for individual workers, modeling was necessary to predict hearing protection use and derive adjusted noise measures.
To develop a multilevel model of the likelihood of use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) for British Columbia (Canada) lumber mill workers.
The study population included 13,147 workers in 14 sawmills for whom we had information on HPD use. Subjects self-reported their use of hearing protectors during routine hearing tests over their work history period. Separate multilevel logistic regression models with increasing complexity were developed for a subcohort of workers with complete information (n = 1493) and for a subcohort comprised subjects with hearing tests coinciding with their jobs (n = 10 203). The models included random intercepts for worker and for sawmill.
HPD use was associated in both subcohorts with factors such as noise exposure and age. We also showed that specific jobs (such as sawfiling) and departments (planer, in particular) were strongly associated with the use of HPDs. The model illustrates the quantitative importance of including a hierarchical structure which allows for explaining potential sources of outcome variability.
We developed a hierarchical model to predict hearing protection use to enable correction of exposure assessments for use in retrospective epidemiological studies. We showed that this was feasible even in the absence of complete determinant information.
PubMed ID
19570944 View in PubMed
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Estimating nurses' exposures to ionizing radiation: the elusive gold standard.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159854
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2008 Feb;5(2):75-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Kay Teschke
Yat Chow
Joanna Chung
Pamela Ratner
John Spinelli
Nhu Le
Helen Ward
Author Affiliation
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. kay.teschke@ubc.ca
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2008 Feb;5(2):75-84
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Algorithms
British Columbia
Cohort Studies
Female
Hospital Departments
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology - etiology
Nurses
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Questionnaires
Radiation, Ionizing
Registries
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Sensitivity and specificity
Thermoluminescent Dosimetry - methods - standards
Abstract
This study assessed ionizing radiation exposure in 58,125 registered nurses in British Columbia, Canada, for a cohort study of cancer morbidity and mortality. Two methods were used: (1) a survey of nurses in more than 100 acute care hospitals and health care centers; (2) and monitoring data reported to the National Dose Registry of Health Canada, considered the gold standard. The mean exposure of cohort nurses monitored during the study period from 1974 to 2000 was 0.27 milliSieverts (7028 person-years of monitoring). Of 609,809 person-years in the cohort, 554,595 (90.9%) were identified as unexposed by both exposure assessment methods. Despite crude agreement of 91% between the methods, weighted kappa for agreement beyond chance was only 0.045, and the sensitivity of the survey method to capture National Dose Registry monitored person-years was only 0.085 (specificity = 0.97). The survey missed exposures outside the acute care setting. The National Dose Registry also missed potential exposures, especially among hospital emergency department and pediatric staff nurses. It was unlikely that either method estimated nurses' true exposures to ionizing radiation with good sensitivity and specificity. The difficulty in exposure assessment likely arises because fewer than 10% of registered nurses are exposed to ionizing radiation, yet the settings in which they are exposed vary tremendously. This means that careful hazard assessment is required to ensure that monitoring is complete where exposures are probable, without incurring the excess costs and lack of specificity of including the unexposed.
PubMed ID
18075880 View in PubMed
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40 records – page 1 of 4.