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Coxiella burnetii exposure in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267029
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2015 May 11;114(1):83-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-11-2015
Author
Colleen Duncan
Verena A Gill
Kristin Worman
Kathy Burek-Huntington
Kristy L Pabilonia
Sam Johnson
Kelly A Fitzpatrick
Christina Weller
Gilbert J Kersh
Source
Dis Aquat Organ. 2015 May 11;114(1):83-7
Date
May-11-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Coxiella burnetii
Endocarditis, Bacterial - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Female
Male
Otters
Q Fever - epidemiology - veterinary
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
Valvular endocarditis has been well described in northern sea otters Enhydra lutris kenyoni of Alaska and in many cases no cause has been identified. It is also one of the most common conditions observed in people with chronic Coxiella burnetii infection. Given the high levels of C. burnetii exposure in marine mammals distributed throughout the same geographic range as the northern sea otter, and the presence of valvular lesions seen in otters, the objective of this study was to determine the level of C. burnetii exposure in otters and investigate any association between exposure, infection and valvular disease in this species. Archived serum from 75 live captured, apparently healthy otters (25 from each of 3 stocks) and 30 dead otters were tested for C. burnetii antibodies by indirect florescent antibody assay (IFA). Archived bone marrow and heart valves were tested for C. burnetii DNA by real-time PCR (qPCR). Overall, the seroprevalence in live otters was 17%, with significantly more exposed animals in the south central (40%) stock relative to the southwest (8%) and southeast (4%). The seroprevalence of animals sampled post mortem was 27%, although none of the bone marrow or heart valve samples were positive by qPCR. Results of this study failed to demonstrate a significant association between C. burnetii infection and valvular endocarditis in sea otters; however, the differing seroprevalence suggests that exposure opportunities vary geographically.
PubMed ID
25958809 View in PubMed
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DISEASE COMPLEXITY IN A DECLINING ALASKAN MUSKOX (OVIBOS MOSCHATUS) POPULATION.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289650
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 04; 53(2):311-329
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
04-2017
Author
Josephine A Afema
Kimberlee B Beckmen
Stephen M Arthur
Kathy Burek Huntington
Jonna A K Mazet
Author Affiliation
1 ? Wildlife Health Center, One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1089 Veterinary Medicine Drive, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2017 04; 53(2):311-329
Date
04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Antibodies, viral
Brucella - isolation & purification
Female
Leptospira - isolation & purification
Parainfluenza Virus 3, Bovine - isolation & purification
Ruminants - microbiology - virology
Abstract
The muskox ( Ovibos moschatus ) population inhabiting the eastern North Slope (ENS) of Alaska, US declined dramatically during 1999-2006, whereas populations in western Alaska (WA) were stable or increasing. To understand morbidity and mortality factors contributing to the decline, Alaska Department of Fish and Game conducted pathologic investigations of carcasses from 2005 until 2008. Additionally, archived sera from both ENS and WA muskoxen collected during 1984-92, before the documented beginning of the ENS decline; sera collected during 2000, near the beginning of the decline; and contemporary sera (from live capture-release, adult females) collected during 2006, 2007, and 2008 were analyzed to determine whether prevalence of antibody to potential pathogens differed in the two areas or changed over time. The pathogens investigated were those that were believed could cause lameness or poor reproduction or adversely affect general health. Furthermore, trace mineral levels, hemograms, and gastrointestinal parasites were evaluated in live adult females captured 2006-08. Pathologic investigations identified several comorbid conditions, including predation, polyarthritis caused by or consistent with Chlamydophila spp. infection, hoof lesions, copper deficiency, contagious ecthyma, verminous pneumonia, hepatic lipidosis suggestive of negative energy balance, and bacterial bronchopneumonia due to Trueperella pyogenes and Bibersteinia trehalosi . Pathogens suspected to be newly introduced in the ENS muskox population on the basis of serologic detection include bovine viral diarrhea, respiratory syncytial virus, Chlamydophila spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii , and Leptospira spp., whereas parainfluenza virus-3 antibody prevalence has increased in the WA population. Although multiple disease syndromes were identified that contributed to mortality and, in combination, likely limited the ENS muskox population, further holistic investigations of disease agents, trace mineral status, and nutritional factors in conjunction with intensive demographic and environmental analyses would provide a better understanding of factors that influence Alaskan muskox populations.
PubMed ID
28099077 View in PubMed
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PREVALENCE AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL VARIATION OF AN ALOPECIA SYNDROME IN POLAR BEARS OF THE SOUTHERN BEAUFORT SEA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257881
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Nov 6;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-6-2014
Author
Todd Atwood
Elizabeth Peacock
Kathy Burek-Huntington
Valerie Shearn-Bochsler
Barbara Bodenstein
Kimberlee Beckmen
George Durner
Author Affiliation
1? US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Dr., Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Nov 6;
Date
Nov-6-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Abstract Alopecia (hair loss) has been observed in several marine mammal species and has potential energetic consequences for sustaining a normal core body temperature, especially for Arctic marine mammals routinely exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) rely on a thick layer of adipose tissue and a dense pelage to ameliorate convective heat loss while moving between sea ice and open water. From 1998 to 2012, we observed an alopecia syndrome in polar bears from the southern Beaufort Sea of Alaska that presented as bilaterally asymmetrical loss of guard hairs and thinning of the undercoat around the head, neck, and shoulders, which, in severe cases, was accompanied by exudation and crusted skin lesions. Alopecia was observed in 49 (3.45%) of the bears sampled during 1,421 captures, and the apparent prevalence varied by years with peaks occurring in 1999 (16%) and 2012 (28%). The probability that a bear had alopecia was greatest for subadults and for bears captured in the Prudhoe Bay region, and alopecic individuals had a lower body condition score than unaffected individuals. The cause of the syndrome remains unknown and future work should focus on identifying the causative agent and potential effects on population vital rates.
PubMed ID
25375943 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279052
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 May;55:13-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Kathi A Lefebvre
Lori Quakenbush
Elizabeth Frame
Kathy Burek Huntington
Gay Sheffield
Raphaela Stimmelmayr
Anna Bryan
Preston Kendrick
Heather Ziel
Tracey Goldstein
Jonathan A Snyder
Tom Gelatt
Frances Gulland
Bobette Dickerson
Verena Gill
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 May;55:13-24
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast of Central California, USA. Forty-six individual marine mammals contained detectable concentrations of both toxins emphasizing the potential for combined exposure risks. Additionally, fetuses from a beluga whale, a harbor porpoise and a Steller sea lion contained detectable concentrations of DA documenting maternal toxin transfer in these species. These results provide evidence that HAB toxins are present throughout Alaska waters at levels high enough to be detected in marine mammals and have the potential to impact marine mammal health in the Arctic marine environment.
PubMed ID
28073526 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295532
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 05; 55:13-24
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
05-2016
Author
Kathi A Lefebvre
Lori Quakenbush
Elizabeth Frame
Kathy Burek Huntington
Gay Sheffield
Raphaela Stimmelmayr
Anna Bryan
Preston Kendrick
Heather Ziel
Tracey Goldstein
Jonathan A Snyder
Tom Gelatt
Frances Gulland
Bobette Dickerson
Verena Gill
Author Affiliation
Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address: Kathi.Lefebvre@noaa.gov.
Source
Harmful Algae. 2016 05; 55:13-24
Date
05-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Aquatic Organisms - metabolism
Arctic Regions
California
Caniformia - metabolism
Cetacea - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Marine Toxins - analysis
Prevalence
Abstract
Current climate trends resulting in rapid declines in sea ice and increasing water temperatures are likely to expand the northern geographic range and duration of favorable conditions for harmful algal blooms (HABs), making algal toxins a growing concern in Alaskan marine food webs. Two of the most common HAB toxins along the west coast of North America are the neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and saxitoxin (STX). Over the last 20 years, DA toxicosis has caused significant illness and mortality in marine mammals along the west coast of the USA, but has not been reported to impact marine mammals foraging in Alaskan waters. Saxitoxin, the most potent of the paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has been well-documented in shellfish in the Aleutians and Gulf of Alaska for decades and associated with human illnesses and deaths due to consumption of toxic clams. There is little information regarding exposure of Alaskan marine mammals. Here, the spatial patterns and prevalence of DA and STX exposure in Alaskan marine mammals are documented in order to assess health risks to northern populations including those species that are important to the nutritional, cultural, and economic well-being of Alaskan coastal communities. In this study, 905 marine mammals from 13 species were sampled including; humpback whales, bowhead whales, beluga whales, harbor porpoises, northern fur seals, Steller sea lions, harbor seals, ringed seals, bearded seals, spotted seals, ribbon seals, Pacific walruses, and northern sea otters. Domoic acid was detected in all 13 species examined and had the greatest prevalence in bowhead whales (68%) and harbor seals (67%). Saxitoxin was detected in 10 of the 13 species, with the highest prevalence in humpback whales (50%) and bowhead whales (32%). Pacific walruses contained the highest concentrations of both STX and DA, with DA concentrations similar to those detected in California sea lions exhibiting clinical signs of DA toxicosis (seizures) off the coast of Central California, USA. Forty-six individual marine mammals contained detectable concentrations of both toxins emphasizing the potential for combined exposure risks. Additionally, fetuses from a beluga whale, a harbor porpoise and a Steller sea lion contained detectable concentrations of DA documenting maternal toxin transfer in these species. These results provide evidence that HAB toxins are present throughout Alaska waters at levels high enough to be detected in marine mammals and have the potential to impact marine mammal health in the Arctic marine environment.
PubMed ID
28073526 View in PubMed
Less detail