Fortification with calcium to increase dietary intakes of this mineral is currently under evaluation in Canada. To model the potential dietary consequences of food fortification, data from a large national survey of Canadians (n = 1543) were used. Food fortification scenarios were based on reference amounts for labeling requirements. Consumption of milk, cheese and other dairy products was associated with high calcium intakes, and there was a low prevalence of inadequacy in men
Although related to inflammatory markers in adults, little is known about the association between cigarette smoking and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adolescent smokers. We examined the association between high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) concentrations and smoking in youth. We used data from a cross-sectional, province-wide survey of a representative sample of youth conducted in Quebec, Canada, in 1999. Data were collected in self-report questionnaires completed by participants and their parents. Participants provided a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measures were undertaken by trained technicians. The present analysis pertains to 1,501 adolescents aged 13 and 16 years who completed questionnaires and for whom blood samples were available. The independent association between a six-category indicator of smoking status and elevated hs-CRP, defined as a value at least in the 90th percentile of the age- and sex-specific CRP distribution, was assessed in multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Relative to never-smokers, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for puffers (i.e., never smoked a whole cigarette), those who smoked but not in the past month, light past-month smokers, moderate past-month smokers, and heavy past-month smokers were 1.04 (0.55-1.98), 1.76 (1.06-2.94), 1.39 (0.70-2.76), 2.07 (0.96-4.42), and 2.40 (1.18-4.88), respectively. Our data suggest a positive association between smoking status and elevated CRP in adolescents, and in particular among heavier past-month smokers. Damage related to cigarette smoking may begin soon after tobacco use initiation, reinforcing the preventive message that no level of smoking is safe in youth.
To understand factors influencing fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in children, the authors studied the association between F&V consumption in mothers and children in a sample of 1,106 boys and girls in Grades 4-6 in 24 elementary schools in low-income, multiethnic neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. Approximately 10% of girls and 19% of boys reported not having eaten any vegetables in the week prior to questionnaire administration; 53% of girls and 63% of boys did not consume whole fruits daily. Each unit increase in F&V consumption in mothers was associated with a 10% to 20% increase in F&V consumption in children. Interventions to improve F&V consumption should aim to improve awareness among parents of the importance of fruits and vegetables and of the impact of their own behavior on their children's F&V consumption.
Depressive symptoms and poor nutritional status have been associated with declines in physical capacity. However, it is not clear whether they exert independent effects and potential for interaction among these two variables has not been studied. The purpose of this report is to clarify the relationships between depressive symptoms and nutritional risk and physical capacity.
Baseline data from community-living and well functioning men and women (n = 1,755) participating in the longitudinal study NuAge (Quebec, Canada), aged 67-84 years were used for this study. Physical performance (PP) was defined as the summary score of 4 tests of physical capacity [Standing Balance, Walking Speed, Chair Stands, and Timed "Up &Go"]. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and nutritional risk by the Elderly Nutrition Screening (ENS(c)) tool.
Prevalence of mild depression (GDS score >or=11 and
Among studies of the built environment, few examine neighbourhood food environments in relation to children's diets. We examined the associations of residential and school neighbourhood access to different types of food establishments with children's diets.
Data from QUALITY (Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth), an ongoing study on the natural history of obesity in 630 Quebec youth aged 8-10 years with a parental history of obesity, were analyzed (n=512). Three 24-hour diet recalls were used to assess dietary intake of vegetables and fruit, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Questionnaires were used to determine the frequency of eating/snacking out and consumption of delivered/take-out foods. We characterized residential and school neighbourhood food environments by means of a Geographic Information System. Variables included distance to the nearest supermarket, fast-food restaurant and convenience store, and densities of each food establishment type computed for 1 km network buffers around each child's residence and school. Retail Food Environment indices were also computed. Multivariable logistic regressions (residential access) and generalized estimating equations (school access) were used for analysis.
Residential and school neighbourhood access to supermarkets was not associated with children's diets. Residing in neighbourhoods with lower access to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores was associated with a lower likelihood of eating and snacking out. Children attending schools in neighbourhoods with a higher number of unhealthful relative to healthful food establishments scored most poorly on dietary outcomes.
Further investigations are needed to inform policies aimed at shaping neighbourhood-level food purchasing opportunities, particularly for access to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores.
Aboriginal Cree infants living in northern Quebec who were 9 months of age were screened for anemia, iron deficiency and elevated blood lead concentrations. Of the 314 infants who were eligible to participate, 274 (87.3%) were screened for anemia, 186 had blood lead concentration measured and 141 of the latter group had iron status determined. The median blood lead concentration was 0.08 micromol/l (range 0.01-1.00 micromol/l). The 25, 50 and 75 percentiles for blood lead concentration were 0.05, 0.08 and 0.12 micromol/l, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood lead concentrations (> 0.48 micromol/l) was 2.7% (95% Cl 0.36-5.0). Among infants who had blood lead measured, the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin
Calcium and vitamin D intakes from food and supplements were estimated in Canadian men and women.
Calcium intakes from both diet and supplements and vitamin D intakes from fortified milk and supplements were estimated using cross-sectional data from 9423 randomly selected subjects aged 25 years or older, who were participating in a longitudinal study on osteoporosis. Subjects completed an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer between July 1995 and December 1997.
The mean (standard deviation) daily intake for calcium was estimated to be 1038 (614) mg for women and 904 (583) mg for men; for vitamin D, mean intakes were 5.6 (5.9) microg and 4.8 (5.5) microg for women and men, respectively.
Mean intakes for calcium and vitamin D in men and women under age 51 were close to the adequate daily intake levels. Older adults, however, may be at risk of deficiency.
To evaluate innovative communication strategies promoting iron nutrition for infants at risk for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in a northern Aboriginal community.
A prospective process evaluation.
A social marketing approach was used in the development, implementation and evaluation of the communication strategies. A post-intervention questionnaire was administered to a sample (n = 45) to evaluate reach and exposure of the strategies, and sales of iron-rich infant foods were examined pre- and post-intervention.
Multiple communication channels were associated with an increased awareness of IDA and an increased self-reported use of iron-rich infant food. Radio was the most successful channel for reach and exposure of messages. Iron-rich infant food sales increased from pre- to post-intervention (p
Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP) is an ongoing, community-based participatory research project with an Aboriginal community in Canada, promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent type 2 diabetes.
To document lessons learned from sharing results with the community, and analyzing feedback from attendees.
In 2004, a researcher-community team delivered 16 sessions of a contextualized presentation of data collected from 1994 to 2002. The team documented the resulting questions and discussions, attendees completed anonymous questionnaires including open-ended questions, and presenters summarized their impressions.
One hundred eighty-one people attended the presentations and question/discussion periods were summarized. One hundred sixty-two (82%) of attendees (87% female), completed the questionnaires; 99% understood the presentations and 142 (88%) stated they intended to improve their lifestyles. Qualitative analysis of discussions and open-ended comments categorized attendees' comments about KSDPP, the 1994 through 2002 results, the community, and lifestyle habits. Lessons learned included the time needed to develop and make the presentations, the importance of using community knowledge to guide the experience, ways of attracting an audience, difficulty of reaching men, use of feedback from those attending the presentations, and the need to plan prospectively for analyzing attendee feedback.
Community feedback was used to improve interventions and finalize interpretation of the results.