To assess the prevalence and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in early-term (37+0-38+6 weeks), full-term (39+0-40+6 weeks), late-term (41+0-41+6 weeks), and post-term (>42+0 weeks) deliveries with spontaneous labor onset.
A population-based cohort with data from the Medical Birth Registry Norway (MBRN) and Statistics Norway (SSB) was conducted. The study population consisted of 665,244 women with cephalic singleton live births at term or post-term with spontaneous labor onset during the period of 1999-2014 in Norway. Maternal, obstetric, and fetal characteristics were obtained from the MBRN. Maternal education data were obtained from the SSB. The prevalence rates of adverse perinatal outcomes for each gestational age (GA) group were estimated. Inter-group differences were detected with Chi square tests. Multivariable regression analysis adjusted for maternal age, educational level, smoking, parity, maternal diabetes, and preeclampsia was used to assess adverse outcome prevalence for early- late-, and post-term births compared to full-term births.
Deliveries at early-term were associated with an increased prevalence of neonatal jaundice, polyhydramnios, small for gestational age (SGA) status, respiratory support, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission compared with deliveries at GAs of 39-43 weeks (p
To study changes in the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter rupture (OASR) during recent years in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway and hospital-based incidence in recent years in Norway.
Retrospective birth register study.
Unselected population of delivering women in four Nordic countries.
All deliveries (574 175) registered in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, 2004-2010.
Parity data, including maternal, obstetrical and fetal characteristics, were obtained. The incidence of OASR was calculated from vaginal deliveries. A chi-squared test was used to analyse differences between countries and time periods.
Incidence of OASR.
During the study period, the OASR incidence in Finland was notably lower (0.7-1.0%) than in the other three Nordic countries (4.2-2.3%). A significant and constant reduction in OASR incidence was observed in Norway only (from 4.1 to 2.3%, from 2004 to 2010, p
Previous studies estimating the association of maternal country of birth and education with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) have shown conflicting results. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HDP and estimate the association of maternal country of birth and education level with preeclampsia/eclampsia and gestational hypertension in Norway.
We performed a population-based observational cohort study linking two population datasets: The Medical Birth Registry of Norway and Statistics Norway (SSB). Singleton deliveries in Norway between 1999 and 2014 (907 048 deliveries) were stratified by parity. Multiple regression analysis was performed.
In 20% of the deliveries the woman was born outside of Norway. Foreign-born women had lower risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia and gestational hypertension compared with Norwegian-born women. High education reduced the risk for preeclampsia/eclampsia by 34% (adjusted odds ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.62-0.69), compared with women with secondary education among nulliparous women, and by 39% (adjusted odds ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.57-0.65) among parous women. Poorly educated women had no increased risk of HDP compared with women with secondary education. Among highly educated nulliparous women the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia was lower but the risk of gestational hypertension higher compared with women of similar parity with secondary education. Adjustment for confounding variables had minimal effect on these estimates.
Maternal country of birth and education were associated with HDP. Women with higher education had the lowest risk of HDP, and Norwegian-born women had the highest risk of HDP, regardless of parity and other confounding factors.
To study prevalence and risk factors for anal incontinence (AI) after obstetric anal sphincter rupture.
This was a retrospective clinical observational study. Among 14 959 vaginal deliveries, 591 women were diagnosed with obstetric anal sphincter ruptures (3.9%) at one Norwegian University Hospital in 2003-2005. Patients were examined and interviewed approximately 10 months after delivery. Anal continence was classified with St. Mark's incontinence score (0, complete anal continence; =3, anal incontinence), and defects in anal sphincter muscles were diagnosed by endoanal ultrasound. Prevalence of anal incontinence was assessed in relation to obstetrical and maternal characteristics as well as the correlation between anal incontinence and ultrasound-detectable defects of sphincter muscle.
Anal incontinence with a St. Mark's score of =3 was reported by 21% of women with obstetric anal sphincter rupture, with inability to control gas as the most prevalent symptom. Women with AI were more likely to report urinary incontinence compared with women having no AI. In a multiple regression analysis of maternal and obstetrical risk factors, fourth degree sphincter tear was the only significant risk factor for AI. Anal incontinence was more frequent in patients diagnosed with than without ultrasound-identified anal sphincter muscle defects at 10 months postpartum follow-up.
Anal as well as urinary incontinence after delivery with obstetric anal sphincter rupture is common, and prenatal obstetric and maternal variables could not predict anal incontinence. Fourth degree perineal tear and a persistent ultrasound-detected defect in the anal sphincter muscles are associated with AI.