The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of brachial neuropraxia (stingers) among varsity football players during the 2010 season; (2) to determine if associations exist between sustaining a stinger and previous history of stingers, years played, equipment, age, body mass index (BMI), and conditioning; and (3) to provide descriptive statistics regarding stingers and position played, symptoms, activity during injury, mechanism of tackling, and reporting of stingers.
Canadian Atlantic University Sport football league.
Two hundred forty-four players.
Two written questionnaires.
Number of players experiencing stingers that occurred during the 2010 season.
The incidence was 26% (64 of 244). A multivariate analysis revealed that previous history of a stinger (P
Effective alcohol control measures can prevent and reduce alcohol-related harms at the population level. This study aims to evaluate implementation of alcohol policies across 11 evidence-based domains in Canada's 13 jurisdictions.
The Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation project assessed all provinces and territories on 11 evidence-based domains weighted for scope and effectiveness. A scoring rubric was developed with policy and practice indicators and peer-reviewed by international experts. The 2017 data were collected from publicly-available regulatory documents, validated by government officials, and independently scored by team members.
The average score for alcohol policy implementation across Canadian provinces and territories was 43.8%; Ontario had the highest (63.9%) and Northwest Territories the lowest (38.4%) jurisdictional scores. Only six of 11 policy domains had average scores above 50% with Monitoring and Reporting scoring the highest (62.8%) and Health and Safety Messaging the lowest (25.7%). A 2017 provincial/territorial current best practice score of 86.6% was calculated taking account of the highest scores for any individual policy indicators implemented in at least one jurisdiction across the country.
Most of the evidence-based alcohol policies assessed by the Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation project were not implemented across Canadian provinces and territories as of 2017, and many provinces showed declining scores since 2012. However, the majority of policies assessed have been implemented in at least one jurisdiction. Improved alcohol policies to reduce related harm are therefore achievable and could be implemented consistently across Canada.
To test the hypotheses that, in comparison with a control group that received standard care, users of manual wheelchairs who also received the French-Canadian version of the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) would significantly improve their wheelchair-skills capacity and that these improvements would be retained at 3 months.
Three rehabilitation centers in Montréal, Quebec, Canada.
Manual wheelchair users (N=39), a sample of convenience.
Participants were randomly allocated to the WSTP or control groups. Participants in both groups received standard care. Participants in the WSTP group also received a mean of 5.9 training sessions (a mean total duration of 5h and 36min).
The French-Canadian version of the Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) (Version 3.2) was administered at evaluation at first time period (baseline) (t1), evaluation at second time period (posttraining) (t2) (a mean of 47d after t1), and at evaluation at third time period (follow-up) (t3) (a mean of 101d after t2).
At t2, the mean ± SD total percentage WST capacity scores were 77.4%±13.8% for the WSTP group and 69.8%±18.4% for the control group (P=.030). Most of this difference was due to the community-level skills (P=.002). The total and subtotal Wheelchair Skills Test scores at t3 decreased by =0.5% from the t2 values, but differences between groups at t3, adjusting for t1, did not reach statistical significance (P=.017 at a Bonferroni-adjusted a level of .005).
WSTP training improves wheelchair skills immediately after training, particularly at the community-skills level, but this study did not show statistically significant differences between the groups at 3 months.
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Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, College of Pharmacy, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4K4, Canada. email@example.com
To determine the incidence, healthcare utilization, and costs in older adults with gout.
A 5-year retrospective case-control study of patients with incident gout and matched controls was performed. Study variables were derived from health administrative data and included patient demographics, International Classification of Diseases diagnostic codes, and healthcare cost information.
There were 4,071 cases and 16,281 controls, providing a 5-year incidence of gout of 4.4%. The mean (+/-SD) age (77+/-7.3 and 76+/-7.1 yrs) and the male:female ratio (1.0:1.04) were similar in both groups. Gout was diagnosed by family physicians (77%), nonrheumatology subspecialists (18%), general internists (4%), and rheumatologists (0.02%). Hospitalizations were significantly higher in cases (p
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common adult arrhythmia, and significantly increases the risk of ischemic stroke. Oral anticoagulation may be underused and may be less effective in community settings than clinical trial settings.
To determine the rates of thromboembolism and bleeding in an ambulatory cohort of patients with AF.
Observational study of Nova Scotian residents with AF identified by electrocardiogram in ambulatory settings between November 1999 and January 2001. Main outcome measures were rates of thromboembolism and bleeding over two years.
Four hundred twenty-five patients were included in the study. The mean (+/-SD) age was 70.6+/-11.1 years, and 40% were women. Warfarin therapy was used by 68% of patients. Sixty-two per cent of patients had hypertension, 21% had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, 44% had congestive heart failure and 20% were diabetic. The overall rate of thromboembolic events was 2.7% in warfarin users and 8.5% in nonwarfarin users over two years, with an RR reduction of 68% (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.91; P=0.047). The annual rate of ischemic stroke was 1.2% and 3.1% in warfarin and nonwarfarin users, respectively, with an RR reduction of 62% (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.04; P=0.057). The overall rate of major bleeding was 2.6% in warfarin users and 1.4% in nonwarfarin users (P=0.667). The annual mortality rate was 7.79% in warfarin users and 9.93% in nonwarfarin users (P=0.192).
Warfarin use was found to significantly reduce the rate of thromboembolic events without a concomitant increase in hemorrhagic events. The present study confirms the effectiveness of warfarin therapy in a population-based cohort.
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To describe the range and attribution of neuropsychiatric (NP) disease in an unselected cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to examine the association with cumulative organ damage, medication use, and quality of life.
One hundred eleven patients with SLE in a single referral center were studied. NP syndromes were defined using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature and case definitions. Overall disease activity was measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI); cumulative organ damage was determined by the ACR/SLICC damage index; and quality of life by the SF-36.
Patients' mean age was 44.7 years, 87% were female, and 92% were Caucasian. The mean (+/- SE) disease duration was 10.1 +/- 0.7 years. A total of 74 NP events were identified in 41 of 111 (37%) patients. Thirteen of the 19 ACR NP syndromes were identified and 2 or more NP manifestations occurred in 56% of patients. Central nervous system manifestations accounted for 92% of the events compared to involvement of the peripheral nervous system in 8%. Thirty-five (47%) of these events were attributed entirely to SLE, 30 (41%) were attributed exclusively to non-SLE factors, and in the remaining 9 events (12%) both SLE and non-SLE factors were felt to be contributory. Cumulative organ damage was higher in patients with NP disease, although this was not statistically significant and they were more likely to have received prednisone or immunosuppressive drugs (p
Heparin is commonly administered during hemodialysis to prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit. The authors' unit instituted a change in heparin type and preparation procedure based on patient safety and potential cost savings. Fifty patient charts were reviewed to determine whether the change affected specific patient outcomes. Economic impact measures included drug, supply, and labor costs. No changes in hemodialysis efficacy or rates of adverse events were observed. Annual cost savings were estimated to be $81,627 USD.
Oral anticoagulation is an effective therapy for the prevention of cardioembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, previous practice reviews have indicated that oral anticoagulants are often underused in this setting. Most of those reports have focused on reviews of hospitalized and institutionalized patients, or small geographical areas.
To determine the use of antithrombotic therapy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation in Nova Scotia and to survey the knowledge of antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation among a concurrent cohort of primary care and specialist physicians involved in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation.
Patients with atrial fibrillation were identified through outpatient electrocardiography clinics held throughout Nova Scotia. Following consent of the primary care physicians, patients were contacted and completed a survey about their current management. Family physicians and specialists in Nova Scotia were also surveyed about the management of atrial fibrillation with antithrombotic therapy through the receipt of one of four case scenarios.
Four hundred twenty-five patients participated in the cross-sectional survey. The mean patient age was 70.6 years, 255 (60%) were male and 398 (93.6%) had at least one risk factor for stroke in addition to atrial fibrillation. Two hundred ninety-four patients (69.2%) were receiving oral anticoagulants either alone (61.9%) or in combination with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (7.3%). An additional 85 patients (20%) received ASA alone. There was no difference in the rates of prescription of oral anticoagulants between elderly patients (75 years of age and older) and those younger than 75 years (71.7% versus 67.3%, 95% CI -13.1% to 4.5%; P=0.34). Overall, 72.0% of patients were receiving antithrombotic therapy in accordance with the 2001 guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians, with no difference in the rates between individuals younger than 75 years (72.2%) and those over 75 years of age (71.7%) (absolute difference -0.5%, 95% CI -9.2% to 8.1%). Physician responses to case scenarios indicated that knowledge was high among both general practitioners and specialists regarding the appropriate use of oral anticoagulants for the prevention of thrombotic complications associated with atrial fibrillation.
The appropriate use of oral antithrombotic therapy for the prevention of thrombotic complications of atrial fibrillation occurs in approximately 72% of patients studied in Nova Scotia, and physician knowledge about this indication is high. There was no bias against prescribing oral anticoagulants to elderly patients. The findings suggest that with time, education and evidence have positively impacted the use of antithrombotic therapy in these patients.
To determine the rates of manual and powered wheelchair use at discharge for people with stroke admitted to a rehabilitation center and to determine whether any predictors of wheelchair use at discharge could be identified.
Retrospective cohort study.
Consecutive former inpatients (N=100) with a primary diagnosis of stroke, a sample of convenience.
We reviewed the inpatient health records to determine the rates of wheelchair use at discharge and to record some readily available demographic and clinical data that might serve as predictors of wheelchair use.
At discharge, 40 people (40%) were using manual wheelchairs, 1 person (1%) was using a powered wheelchair, and 59 (59%) were not using a wheelchair. Of the patients who were walkers on admission (ie, walking FIM scores of 6 or 7), none (0%) used wheelchairs at discharge. Of those with nonwalking FIM scores (1-5) on admission, 56% were using wheelchairs at discharge. Multivariate analyses revealed that the adjusted odds ratios of using a wheelchair (manual or powered) were 3.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-8.33) for those with left-hemisphere versus right-hemisphere strokes (P=.010), .94 (CI, .91-.96) for each point rise in the total raw FIM score on admission (P
This population-based study of women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer aimed to (i) determine the current utilization pattern of multigated acquisition (MUGA) scans before adjuvant chemotherapy (AdjC) treatment, and (ii) examine the impact of MUGA scan results on AdjC decision making.
All women who underwent curative-intent surgery for stage I-III breast cancer between October 2005 and September 2006 in Nova Scotia, Canada, were identified through the provincial cancer registry. A retrospective chart review was performed to abstract all relevant clinical-pathologic variables, including baseline cardiac risk factors. The association between MUGA scan utilization and clinical-pathologic variables, as well as receipt and type of AdjC, was examined through univariate and multivariate analyses.
The study included 593 women, of whom 238 (40%) received AdjC (94% anthracycline vs. 6% nonanthracycline) and 198 (33%) underwent baseline MUGA scans. Of those received AdjC, 80% underwent MUGA scans. MUGA scan utilization was associated with AdjC treatment (yes vs. no; P 65 years of age. In the 1 patient