This study aimed to describe the psychiatric nursing care experiences of immigrant patients. The incidence of mental health problems is higher and the use of mental health services is lower among immigrants, especially refugees, compared with the majority of the population. The study uses a qualitative research approach, with an emphasis on focused ethnography research methods. The participants were immigrant patients (N = 14) residing in adult psychiatric wards of certain hospitals (N = 3) selected for the study. A majority of the participants were refugees or asylum seekers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted. The experiences of these immigrant patients, both in their home countries and in their country of residence, had had an adverse effect on their mental health, with past traumatic experiences being the most central factor. Their symptoms included depression, anxiety, somatization, and psychosis. The findings show that the categories of factors that helped promote recovery among immigrant patients were nursing, medical treatment, care environment, and the patients' own methods. Based on the findings, a systematic evaluation of traumatic experiences is recommended for immigrants from countries with a history of war and/or political violence. Healthcare providers should also consider the importance of cultural desire in psychiatric nursing for the recovery of patients.
To describe the factors pertaining to medication being administered to the wrong patient and to describe how patient identification is mentioned in wrong-patient incident reports.
Although patient identification has been given high priority to improve patient safety, patient misidentifications occur, and wrong-patient incidents are common.
A descriptive content analysis.
Incident reports related to medication administration (n = 1,012) were collected from two hospitals in Finland between 1 January 2013-31 December 2014. Of those, only incidents involving wrong-patient medication administration (n = 103) were included in this study.
Wrong-patient incidents occurred due for many reasons, including nurse-related factors (such as tiredness, a lack of skills or negligence) but also system-related factors (such as rushing or heavy workloads). In 77% (n = 79) of wrong-patient incident reports, the process of identifying of the patient was not described at all.
There is need to pay more attention to and increase training in correct identification processes to prevent wrong-patient incidents, and it is important to adjust system factors to support nurses.
Active patient identification procedures, double-checking and verification at each stage of the medication process should be implemented. More attention should also be paid to organisational factors, such as division of work, rushing and workload, as well as to correct communication. The active participation of nurses in handling incidents could increase risk awareness and facilitate useful protection actions.
The aim of this study is to describe the factors hindering and facilitating the implementation of the advanced practice registered nurses role at Finnish university hospitals, and to examine the implications for its future development. A descriptive qualitative approach, using thematic individual interviews, was conducted in 2011 with a sample of 11 advanced practice registered nurses. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The advanced practice registered nurses role barriers had an impact on the role development needs. In turn, the facilitating factors helped encounter the challenges of the role, therefore having an impact on both the current role achievement, as well as contributing to the future role development. The factors hindering and facilitating the advanced practice registered nurses role need to be acknowledged to support the role implementation and planning of the future of the role.
Patient classification systems have been developed to manage workloads by estimating the need for nursing resources through the identification and quantification of individual patients' care needs. There is in use a diverse variety of patient classification systems. Most of them lack validity and reliability testing and evidence of the relationship to nursing outcomes.
Predictive validity of the RAFAELA system was tested by examining whether hospital mortality can be predicted by the optimality of nursing workload.
In this cross-sectional retrospective observational study, monthly mortality statistics and reports of daily registrations from the RAFAELA system were gathered from 34 inpatient units of two acute care hospitals in 2012 and 2013 (n=732). The association of hospital mortality with the chosen predictors (hospital, average daily patient to nurse ratio, average daily nursing workload and average daily workload optimality) was examined by negative binomial regression analyses.
Compared to the incidence rate of death in the months of overstaffing when average daily nursing workload was below the optimal level, the incidence rate was nearly fivefold when average daily nursing workload was at the optimal level (IRR 4.79, 95% CI 1.57-14.67, p=0.006) and 13-fold in the months of understaffing when average daily nursing workload was above the optimal level (IRR 12.97, 95% CI 2.86-58.88, p=0.001).
Hospital mortality can be predicted by the RAFAELA system. This study rendered additional confirmation for the predictive validity of this patient classification system. In future, larger studies with a wider variety of nurse sensitive outcomes and multiple risk adjustments are needed. Future research should also focus on other important criteria for an adequate nursing workforce management tool such as simplicity, efficiency and acceptability.
This study assessed the prevalence of pathological dissociation in the general population, and the relationship between pathological dissociation and sociodemographic and several psychiatric variables.
The stratified population sample consisted of 2001 subjects. The study questionnaires included the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and sociodemographic background.
The prevalence of pathological dissociation (DES-T >/= 20) was 3.4% in the general population and did not differ significantly between genders. Men scored higher than women in the amnesia subscale, and women in the absorption and imaginative involvement subscale. The relationship between pathological dissociation, alexithymia, depression and suicidality was strong. The likelihood of pathological dissociation was nearly nine-fold higher among depressive subjects, more than seven-fold higher among alexithymic subjects, and more than four-fold higher among suicidal subjects than among the others. Frequent alcohol consumption also associated significantly with pathological dissociation.
A significant relationship between pathological dissociation, depression, alexithymia, and suicidality was found in the general population. The importance of these factors should be examined in a prospective study design to determine causality.
Childhood trauma has been associated with psychological dissociation, but there is evidence that trauma may also result in somatoform dissociation. We performed a general population study with 1739 subjects, using the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, measures of adverse childhood experiences, and sociodemographic background. The prevalence of high somatoform dissociation (Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire >or=30) was 9.4% in the Finnish general population. Unemployment, a reduced working ability, and a poor financial situation were associated with high somatoform dissociation. Of the adverse childhood experiences, high somatoform dissociation was strongly linked to physical punishment but not associated with domestic violence, including sexual and physical abuse. The odds of high somatoform dissociation were also increased among men by a poor relationship between their parents, and among women by alcohol abuse in their childhood home. We found a strong, graded relationship between an increasing number of adverse childhood experiences and high somatoform dissociation.
A trigger is a powerful tool for identifying adverse events to measure the level of any kind of harm caused in patient care. Studies with epilepsy patients have illustrated that using triggers as a methodology with data mining may increase patient well-being. The purpose of this study is to test the functionality and validity of the previously defined triggers to describe the status of epilepsy patient's well-being. In both medical and nursing data, the triggers described patients' well-being comprehensively. The narratives showed that there was overlapping in triggers. The preliminary results of triggers encourage us to develop some reminders to the documentation of epilepsy patient well-being. These provide healthcare professionals with further and more detailed information when necessary.
Tea drinking has been suggested to be beneficial in neurodegenerative diseases where depressive mood is a common symptom. Nevertheless, it is not known whether there are any associations between tea drinking and depression in general populations. In this study we investigated these associations in a sample of the Finnish general population (n = 2011) using a postal questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Those who reported drinking tea daily were less depressed than the others. They had a lower mean BDI score and also a lower prevalence of depression. None of those whose daily tea intake was five cups or more had depression. Several potential confounding factors were included in the final sex- and age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression model which suggested that those who drink tea daily may have a significantly reduced risk of being depressed (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.83). In conclusion, an inverse relationship between daily tea drinking and the risk of being depressed was found in a relatively large general population sample. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms are unresolved and further studies are needed.
This 3-year follow-up study examined background factors, stressful life-events, and changes in alexithymia and depression scores in four groups of subjects from a general population (N = 1,339): alexithymic (A), depressed (D), simultaneously alexithymic/depressed (AD), and non-alexithymic/non-depressed (O). Alexithymia was assessed using the 20-item version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) and depression using the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A questionnaire screening sociodemography and stressful life-events was also used. The results showed that alexithymia was associated with male gender and blue-collar working, whereas depressive symptoms associated with female gender, older age, poor subjective health, poor financial situation, and low life satisfaction. During the follow-up the sum of stressful life-events was higher among groups AD and D than in groups A and O. The most common stressful life-events were the death of a close relative or friend, a negative change in the health of a family member, and financial problems. The TAS scores decreased only in groups A and AD. The BDI scores decreased in group AD but remained relatively unchanged in group D. Interestingly, if only those without depressive symptoms are considered, alexithymia appears to be a rarer phenomenon than has been reported previously. Furthermore, it seems that depressive symptoms were chronic and long-lasting among the general population.