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Adipose tissue fatty acids as biomarkers of dietary exposure in Danish men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24046
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 May;57(5):629-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1993
Author
A. Tjønneland
K. Overvad
E. Thorling
M. Ewertz
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Registry, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen.
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 1993 May;57(5):629-33
Date
May-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Biological Markers - analysis
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Fatty Acids - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Adipose tissue fatty acids, it has been proposed, reflect dietary intake. Using data from a validation study preceding a prospective study on diet, cancer, and health in Denmark, we were able to compare fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue biopsies from 86 individuals (23 men and 63 women) aged 40-64 y and dietary intake of fatty acids (as percentage of total fat) assessed by two 7-d weighed-diet records or by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r) between fatty acid concentrations in adipose tissue biopsies (as percentage of total peak area) and dietary intake of fatty acid (percentage of total fat), determined from the diet records for men and women, respectively, were as follows: polyunsaturated fatty acids r = 0.74 and r = 0.46; n - 3 fatty acids of marine origin: eicosapentaenoic acid r = 0.15 and r = 0.61, and docosahexaenoic acid r = 0.47 and r = 0.57. Correlation coefficients obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire were slightly lower for most fatty acids.
PubMed ID
8480677 View in PubMed
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Consumption of added fats and oils in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) centres across 10 European countries as assessed by 24-hour dietary recalls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18552
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6B):1227-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
J. Linseisen
E. Bergström
L. Gafá
C A González
A. Thiébaut
A. Trichopoulou
R. Tumino
C. Navarro Sánchez
C. Martínez Garcia
I. Mattisson
S. Nilsson
A. Welch
E A Spencer
K. Overvad
A. Tjønneland
F. Clavel-Chapelon
E. Kesse
A B Miller
M. Schulz
K. Botsi
A. Naska
S. Sieri
C. Sacerdote
M C Ocké
P H M Peeters
G. Skeie
D. Engeset
U R Charrondière
N. Slimani
Author Affiliation
Unit of Human Nutrition and Cancer Prevention, Technical University of Munich, Alte Akademie 16, D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany. j.linseisen@wzw.tum.de
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6B):1227-42
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Diet Surveys
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Educational Status
Energy intake
Europe
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - etiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consumption of added fats and oils across the European centres and countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: 24-Hour dietary recalls were collected by means of standardised computer-guided interviews in 27 redefined EPIC centres across 10 European countries. SUBJECTS: From an initial number of 36 900 subjects, single dietary recalls from 22 924 women and 13 031 men in the age range of 35-74 years were included. RESULTS: Mean daily intake of added fats and oils varied between 16.2 g (Varese, Italy) and 41.1 g (Malmö, Sweden) in women and between 24.7 g (Ragusa, Italy) and 66.0 g (Potsdam, Germany) in men. Total mean lipid intake by consumption of added fats and oils, including those used for sauce preparation, ranged between 18.3 (Norway) and 37.2 g day-1 (Greece) in women and 28.4 (Heidelberg, Germany) and 51.2 g day-1 (Greece) in men. The Mediterranean EPIC centres with high olive oil consumption combined with low animal fat intake contrasted with the central and northern European centres where fewer vegetable oils, more animal fats and a high proportion of margarine were consumed. The consumption of added fats and oils of animal origin was highest in the German EPIC centres, followed by the French. The contribution of added fats and oils to total energy intake ranged from 8% in Norway to 22% in Greece. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate a high variation in dietary intake of added fats and oils in EPIC, providing a good opportunity to elucidate the role of dietary fats in cancer aetiology.
PubMed ID
12639229 View in PubMed
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Consumption of dairy products in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: data from 35 955 24-hour dietary recalls in 10 European countries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18551
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6B):1259-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
A. Hjartåker
A. Lagiou
N. Slimani
E. Lund
M D Chirlaque
E. Vasilopoulou
X. Zavitsanos
F. Berrino
C. Sacerdote
M C Ocké
P H M Peeters
D. Engeset
G. Skeie
A. Aller
P. Amiano
G. Berglund
S. Nilsson
A. McTaggart
E A Spencer
K. Overvad
A. Tjønneland
F. Clavel-Chapelon
J. Linseisen
M. Schulz
B. Hemon
E. Riboli
Author Affiliation
Section of Medical Statistics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1122, Blindern, N-0317 Norway. anette.hjartaker@basalmed.uio.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6B):1259-71
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Dairy Products
Diet
Diet Surveys
Europe
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare the consumption of dairy products in cohorts included in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Data from single 24-hour dietary recall interviews collected through a highly standardised computer-based program (EPIC-SOFT) in 27 redefined centres in 10 European countries between 1995 and 2000. From a total random sample of 36 900, 22 924 women and 13 031 men were selected after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age. RESULTS: A high total consumption of dairy products was reported in most of the centres in Spain and in the UK cohort sampled from the general population, as well as in the Dutch, Swedish and Danish centres. A somewhat low consumption was reported in the Greek centre and in some of the Italian centres (Ragusa and Turin). In all centres and for both sexes, milk constituted the dairy sub-group with the largest proportion (in grams) of total dairy consumption, followed by yoghurt and other fermented milk products, and cheese. Still, there was a wide range in the contributions of the different dairy sub-groups between centres. The Spanish and Nordic centres generally reported a high consumption of milk, the Swedish and Dutch centres reported a high consumption of yoghurt and other fermented milk products, whereas the highest consumption of cheese was reported in the French centres. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative disparities in dairy product consumption among the EPIC centres. This offers a sound starting point for analyses of associations between dairy intake and chronic diseases such as cancer.
PubMed ID
12639231 View in PubMed
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A cross-sectional study of dietary habits and urinary glucose excretion - a predictor of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20439
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 May;54(5):434-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
A. Ekblond
L. Mellemkjaer
A. Tjonneland
M. Suntum
C. Stripp
K. Overvad
C. Johansen
J H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 May;54(5):434-9
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cereals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - etiology - prevention & control - urine
Diet
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Female
Fishes
Fruit
Glycosuria
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Milk
Poultry
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Characteristics
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between consumption of certain foods and macronutrients and urinary glucose excretion, which is a predictor of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study, Denmark, 1993-97. SUBJECTS: Participants in the Danish study 'Diet, Cancer and Health'. After exclusion of persons with postprandial urine samples and persons with diabetes or other diseases potentially resulting in glycosuria, the study population included 14 743 men and 18 064 women aged 50-64 y. We identified 183 men and 43 women with glucose in their urine. RESULTS: Consumption of poultry was negatively associated with glycosuria in both men (odds ratio, OR=0.87; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI=0.77-0.98) and women (OR=0.69; 0.48-1.00). Fiber from fruit showed a weak negative association with glycosuria in both men (0. 95; 0.90-1.01) and women (0.89; 0.78-1.02), whereas a significant negative association with total fiber (0.68; 0.51-0.91) and fiber from vegetables (0.94; 0.88-0.99) was seen in men. Intake of fish tended to reduce the risk of glycosuria in women only (0.80; 0.63-1. 02), whereas ingestion of milk products increased their risk significantly (1.15; 1.06-1.24). CONCLUSION: Although statistical significance and consistency in the two sexes were not achieved for all end-points, the study indicates a protective effect of dietary products like poultry, fruit and cereals against glycosuria and suggests a promoting effect of milk. SPONSORSHIP: The Danish National Board of Health and the Danish Cancer Society.
PubMed ID
10822293 View in PubMed
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Development of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess food, energy and nutrient intake in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24666
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1991 Dec;20(4):900-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1991
Author
K. Overvad
A. Tjønneland
J. Haraldsdóttir
M. Ewertz
O M Jensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Social Medicine, University of Arhus, Denmark.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1991 Dec;20(4):900-5
Date
Dec-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Denmark
Diet Records
Diet Surveys
Energy intake
Female
Food - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Foods to be included in a Danish self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were identified from food tables developed, together with data collected, for the survey 'Dietary habits in Denmark, 1985'. The questionnaire was to be used in a prospective study on diet, cancer and health, and the aim was to rank individuals with regard to intake of 19 different nutrients considered of prime importance in human carcinogenesis. The questionnaire for the dietary survey included 247 foods and recipes. From stepwise multiple regression analyses with the intake of each of the 19 nutrients as the dependent variable and the intake of the 247 foods and recipes as independent variables, the foods in the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability were considered for the final questionnaire. All relevant analyses were performed for the study group as a whole, for men and women separately, and in each gender for subgroups of energy intake. Taken together, the models explaining 90% of the between-person variability identified a total of 74 foods or recipes, which were important predictors of the intake of one or more of the nutrients considered. A few foods were excluded and a few foods were added to the final questionnaire based on common biological background information, and on information on foods providing important amounts of given nutrients, but which failed to contribute to regression analyses. The 92 foods and recipes, which were included in the final questionnaire provided altogether 81% of the average total supply of the nutrients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
1800428 View in PubMed
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Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18549
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6B):1311-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
N. Slimani
M. Fahey
A A Welch
E. Wirfält
C. Stripp
E. Bergström
J. Linseisen
M B Schulze
C. Bamia
Y. Chloptsios
F. Veglia
S. Panico
H B Bueno-de-Mesquita
M C Ocké
M. Brustad
E. Lund
C A González
A. Barcos
G. Berglund
A. Winkvist
A. Mulligan
P. Appleby
K. Overvad
A. Tjønneland
F. Clavel-Chapelon
E. Kesse
P. Ferrari
W A Van Staveren
E. Riboli
Author Affiliation
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France. Slimani@iarc.fr
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6B):1311-28
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cultural Diversity
Diet
Diet Surveys
Europe
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN AND SETTING: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face interviews using the EPIC-SOFT software. These have been used to present a graphic multi-dimensional comparison of the adjusted mean consumption of 22 food groups. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 men and women, aged 35-74 years, participating in the EPIC nested calibration study. RESULTS: Although wide differences were observed across centres, the countries participating in EPIC are characterised by specific dietary patterns. Overall, Italy and Greece have a dietary pattern characterised by plant foods (except potatoes) and a lower consumption of animal and processed foods, compared with the other EPIC countries. France and particularly Spain have more heterogeneous dietary patterns, with a relatively high consumption of both plant foods and animal products. Apart from characteristics specific to vegetarian groups, the UK 'health-conscious' group shares with the UK general population a relatively high consumption of tea, sauces, cakes, soft drinks (women), margarine and butter. In contrast, the diet in the Nordic countries, The Netherlands, Germany and the UK general population is relatively high in potatoes and animal, processed and sweetened/refined foods, with proportions varying across countries/centres. In these countries, consumption of vegetables and fruit is similar to, or below, the overall EPIC means, and is low for legumes and vegetable oils. Overall, dietary patterns were similar for men and women, although there were large gender differences for certain food groups. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable differences in food group consumption and dietary patterns among the EPIC study populations. This large heterogeneity should be an advantage when investigating the relationship between diet and cancer and formulating new aetiological hypotheses related to dietary patterns and disease.
PubMed ID
12639235 View in PubMed
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Does the association between smoking status and selected healthy foods depend on gender? A population-based study of 54 417 middle-aged Danes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19306
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jan;56(1):57-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2002
Author
M. Osler
A. Tjønneland
M. Suntum
B L Thomsen
C. Stripp
M. Grønbaek
K. Overvad
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jan;56(1):57-63
Date
Jan-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet Surveys
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated - analysis
Educational Status
Female
Food Habits - drug effects
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Smoking serves different functions for men and women. Thus, we wanted to investigate the association between smoking behaviour and intakes of selected healthy foods in men and women with special focus on differences and similarities between the two genders. DESIGN: In 1993-1997, a random sample of 80 996 men and 79 729 women aged 50-64 y was invited to participate in the study 'Diet, Cancer and Health'. In all, 27 179 men and 29 876 women attended a health examination and completed a 192-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The association between smoking status and low, median and high intakes of selected foods was examined among 25 821 men and 28 596 women. SETTING: The greater Copenhagen and Aarhus area, Denmark. RESULTS: For both men and women, smoking status group was associated with diet, such that increasing level of smoking status ranging from never smokers over ex-smokers to currently heavy smokers was associated with a lower intake of the healthy foods: fresh fruit, cooked vegetables, raw vegetables/salad, and olive oil. For wine, increasing level of smoking status category was associated with a higher fraction of abstainers and heavy drinkers. The difference between the extreme smoking status categories was larger than the difference between men and women within smoking status categories such that never smoking men in general had a higher intake of healthy foods than heavy smoking women. Correction for age, educational level, and body mass index (BMI) did not affect the results. CONCLUSION: In this middle-aged population, intake of healthy foods were associated with smoking behaviour with a dose-response type of relationship. The overall pattern was similar for men and women.
PubMed ID
11840181 View in PubMed
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Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18553
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6B):1197-215
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
E. Wirfält
A. McTaggart
V. Pala
B. Gullberg
G. Frasca
S. Panico
H B Bueno-de-Mesquita
P H M Peeters
D. Engeset
G. Skeie
M D Chirlaque
P. Amiano
E. Lundin
A. Mulligan
E A Spencer
K. Overvad
A. Tjønneland
F. Clavel-Chapelon
J. Linseisen
U. Nöthlings
E. Polychronopoulos
K. Georga
U R Charrondière
N. Slimani
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, SE-20502 Sweden. elisabet.wirfalt@smi.mas.lu.se
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2002 Dec;5(6B):1197-215
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Diet Surveys
Dietary Carbohydrates - administration & dosage
Europe
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance - methods
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female participants only (men, women, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined. RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher in southern compared with northern centres, while soft drinks consumption was higher in the north. Italian centres had high pasta and rice consumption, but breakfast cereal, potato, and sweet buns, cakes and pies were higher in northern centres. In Sweden, lower bread consumption was balanced with a higher consumption of crispbread, and with sweet buns, cakes and pies. Overall, men consumed higher amounts of vegetables and legumes, bread, soft drinks, potatoes, pasta and rice, breakfast cereal and sugar and jam than women, but fruit consumption appeared more frequent in women. CONCLUSION: The study supports the established idea that carbohydrate-rich foods chosen in northern Europe are different from those in the Mediterranean region. When comparing and interpreting diet-disease relationships across populations, researchers need to consider all types of foods.
PubMed ID
12639227 View in PubMed
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Is the effect of alcohol on risk of stroke confined to highly stressed persons?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9192
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 2005;25(3):105-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
N R Nielsen
T. Truelsen
J C Barefoot
S P Johnsen
K. Overvad
G. Boysen
P. Schnohr
M. Grønbaek
Author Affiliation
Centre for Alcohol Research, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. nrn@niph.dk
Source
Neuroepidemiology. 2005;25(3):105-13
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking - psychology
Alcoholic Beverages - adverse effects
Cerebrovascular Accident - etiology
Denmark
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Self Assessment (Psychology)
Stress, Psychological - psychology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory setting. We aimed to examine whether the association between alcohol and stroke depends on level of self-reported stress in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: The 5,373 men and 6,723 women participating in the second examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983 were asked at baseline about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total consumption of 1-14 units of alcohol compared with no consumption seemed associated with a lower risk of stroke (adjusted RR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.07). At lower stress levels, no clear associations were observed. Regarding subtypes, self-reported stress appeared only to modify the association between alcohol intake and ischaemic stroke events. Regarding specific types of alcoholic beverages, self-reported stress only modified the associations for intake of beer and wine. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the apparent lower risk of stroke associated with moderate alcohol consumption is confined to a group of highly stressed persons. It is suggested that alcohol consumption may play a role in reducing the risk of stroke by modifying the physiological or psychological stress response.
PubMed ID
15956807 View in PubMed
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Nicotine patches in smoking cessation: a randomized trial among over-the-counter customers in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature67634
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Feb 15;145(4):309-18
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-1997
Author
J. Sønderskov
J. Olsen
S. Sabroe
L. Meillier
K. Overvad
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Feb 15;145(4):309-18
Date
Feb-15-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Administration, Cutaneous
Adolescent
Adult
Denmark
Double-Blind Method
Drugs, Non-Prescription - therapeutic use
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nicotine - therapeutic use
Nicotinic Agonists - therapeutic use
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking Cessation - methods
Treatment Outcome
Treatment Refusal
Abstract
The authors examined the effect of 24-hour nicotine patches in smoking cessation among over-the-counter customers in Denmark, based on a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Participants were consecutive customers to whom nicotine patches were offered as the only treatment. Forty-two pharmacies in the areas of Aarhus and Copenhagen in Denmark participated in the trial, and 522 customers who smoked 10 or more cigarettes per day were randomized to either nicotine patches or placebo from January to March 1994. Customers with chronic diseases and pregnant or breastfeeding women were excluded from the trial. Twenty-four-hour patches were offered free of charge during a 3-month period. Those smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day started on a dose of 21-mg/day patches. Customers who smoked less started on patches of 14 mg/day; and for all of the participants, the dose was gradually reduced to 7-mg/day patches during the study period. Smoking behavior and compliance were recorded by means of self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. Smoking status was recorded in intervals of 4 weeks, which was fixed to be a treatment period, and 26 weeks after inclusion. There was a significant increase in smoking cessation rates after 8 weeks of follow-up but only among smokers who started on 21-mg/day patches. There was a marked placebo effect at each time of contact during the trial, especially in those smoking fewer than 20 cigarettes per day. Although the noncompliance rate was high overall due to discontinuation in the use of patches by relapsed smokers, noncompliance among successful quitters was low. More side effects were seen in the nicotine group than in the placebo group, but none of the reported side effects were serious. It appears that regular healthy smokers who were customers of nonprescribed nicotine patches and who received 21-mg/day nicotine patches benefited from the active treatment (44.1% stopped smoking after 4 weeks), but almost as many stopped smoking in the placebo group (37.3% after 4 weeks). No significant differences in smoking cessation rates were seen among smokers who started with the low-dose nicotine or placebo patches.
PubMed ID
9054234 View in PubMed
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21 records – page 1 of 3.