General practitioners (GPs) in Denmark (n = 374) answered a questionnaire on attitudes toward including information on diet and sex in the prevention of coronary artery disease, cancers, osteoporosis, and weight problems. Risk factors for disease were ranked as follows: smoking, alcohol, stress, diet, physical exercise, heredity, and hygiene. Patients' lack of motivation, insufficient time for each patient, and inadequate knowledge about nutrition were listed by GPs as barriers to dietary counseling. GPs stated that the sex of the patient was important only for counseling on osteoporosis. Lack of time and insufficient knowledge were perceived as barriers to including sex-specific issues in prevention. One-half of the GPs were questioned about the issue of prevention on the basis of female case stories and the other half on the basis of male case stories with identical wording. Responses to the case stories indicated that GPs would give dietary guidance and recommend loss of weight to slightly overweight male patients to a much greater degree than to overweight female patients for prevention of coronary artery disease, give dietary counseling and recommend loss of weight and exercise to female patients more than to male patients for prevention of cancers, recommend a supplement of calcium and vitamin D for prevention of osteoporosis to female patients, and recommend weight gain and discuss psychosocial issues more with underweight female patients than with underweight male patients. Female GPs included measures of prevention such as dietary counseling, exercise prescription, dietary supplement prescription, and discussion of psychosocial issues to a greater extent than did male GPs.
Variation in diet associated with drinking patterns may partly explain why wine seems to reduce ischaemic heart disease mortality. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Copenhagen and Aarhus from 1995 to 1997 including 23,284 men and 25,479 women aged 50-64 years, the relation between intake of different alcoholic beverages and selected indicators of a healthy diet was investigated. In multivariate analyses, wine, as compared with other alcoholic drinks, was associated with a higher intake of fruit, fish, cooked vegetables, salad, the use of olive oil for cooking and not using fat spread on rye bread. In conclusion, the association between wine drinking and an intake of a healthy diet may have implications for the interpretation of previous reports of the relation between type of alcoholic beverage and ischaemic heart disease mortality.
In 1989, a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, including 92 food items and 40 portion-size photographs, was validated against two times seven days of weighed diet records. A total of 144 subjects, aged 40-64 years, from the general population in Copenhagen were included. Correlations between mean calorie-adjusted intakes from the two-week diet records and the food-frequency questionnaire ranged from 0.27 for vitamin A to 0.71 for calcium. In general, higher correlation coefficients were observed for men than for women. On average, about 70% of subjects were classified in the same (+/- 1) quintile in the food frequency questionnaire and the diet records. Of those subjects belonging to the lowest quintile, estimated from the diet records, 42% fell in the same quintile and 68% into the lowest two quintiles in the food frequency questionnaire. Findings were similar for the upper tail of the distribution. Gross misclassification, observed in the highest and lowest quintile, was found for 4% and 7% of the subjects, respectively. It is concluded that this food frequency questionnaire is a useful instrument for categorizing individuals according to their intake of nutrients and energy.
BACKGROUND: Variation in diet associated with drinking patterns may explain why wine seems to reduce ischemic heart disease mortality. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study the association between intake of different alcoholic beverages and selected indicators of a healthy diet. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Copenhagen and Aarhus, Denmark, from 1995 to 1997, and included 23 284 men and 25 479 women aged 50-64 y. The main outcome measures were groups of selected foods that were indicators of a healthy dietary pattern. RESULTS: Wine, as compared with other alcoholic drinks, was associated with a higher intake of fruit, fish, cooked vegetables, salad, and the use of olive oil for cooking in both men and women. Men who preferred beer and spirits had odds ratios of 0.42 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.45) and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.60), respectively, for a high intake of salad compared with those who preferred wine. Higher wine intake was associated with a higher intake of healthy food items compared with intake of
Comment In: Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan;69(1):2-39925114